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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Medicine and Surgery | Volume 2 Issue 6 | Nov. 30, 2021
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjms.2021.v02i06.015       Download PDF       HTML       XML



Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Doctors towards Preoperative Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis at GMC Jammu


Shahnawaz Ahmed Chowdhary*1 and Kulbir Singh Jat2

1Registrar, Department of General Surgery, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

2Registrar, Department of General Surgery, GMC, Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, India

*Corresponding Author

Shahnawaz Ahmed Chowdhary


Article History

Received: 07.11.2021

Accepted: 15.11.2021

Published: 30.11.2021


Abstract: Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common serious complications after surgery and associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. The use of preoperative surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is an effective measure that helps to protect against SSIs. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Doctors towards preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis at GMC Jammu. Methodology: Present study was a cross sectional observational descriptive study was conducted among doctors working in surgical departments at GMC Jammu selected by random sampling technique.Information regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis was obtained using a self-administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using epi info v7 software using appropriate statistical tests. Results:  A total of 100 doctors including faculty members and Residents working in surgical specialties & super-specialties were participated in the study. Among the 61 were Males while 39 were females, 57 were less 40 years of age while 43 were above 40 years of age, 63 were having less than 5 years of service while 37 had more than 5 years of services at GMC Jammu and 88 were working in surgical specialties while 12 were working in surgical super-specialties. Among the total, 22 participants had very good knowledge regarding SAP, 55 had good knowledge, 14 had fair knowledge and 9 had poor knowledge regarding SAP. In the study, 14 participants had very good practices of SAP, 57 follow good practices, 11 had fair practices and 18 follow poor practices of SAP. In the present study, 14 participants had very good practices of SAP, 57 follow good practices, 11 had fair practices and 18 follow poor practices of SAP. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that doctors’ knowledge regarding surgical antibiotics prophylaxis in various clinical scenarios and their attitude and practices of SAP guidelines was satisfactory.


Keywords: Surgical Antimicrobial Prophylaxis, Attitude, Knowledge, Practice, Doctors, GMC Jammu.

INTRODUCTION

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious events that surgeons regularly encounter during their practice and one of the most common postoperative complications, affecting nearly half of the patients undergoing surgical procedures (Reichman, D. E., & Greenberg, J. A. 2009; & https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).


Several studies have identified that SSIs are the very frequently reported nosocomial infections, which are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity and the leading cause of extended hospitalization as well as a source of a financial burden on health care. Due to various factors including lack of resources and staff shortage, the problem of SSIs is more prominent in developing countries (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; Haque, M. et al., 2018; & Crader, M. F., &).


Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is defined as the use of antibiotics to prevent infections at the surgical site. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) has been recognized as one of the major factors and essential tools in combating and decreasing SSIs. Numerous guidelines have been developed, describing the types, dosage, and duration of administration of SAP. However, several studies have demonstrated poor adherence among doctors towards these guidelines (Ahmed, A. M. et al., 2019; Binown, K. A. et al., 2021; & Pelullo, C. P. et al., 2020).


There is paucity of studies regarding doctors’ knowledge and practices towards SAP guidelines in India, so we did this study with the aim was to assess knowledge, attitude, and adherence to the practice of SAP guidelines among doctors working at GMC Jammu.


Objectives of the Study

To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and adherence to the practice of SAP guidelines among doctors working at GMC Jammu.


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research approach –Descriptive

  • Study design- Cross Section Hospital based study design

  • Setting of the study- GMC Jammu.

  • Study duration- between May- September 2021

  • Study population- Doctors working in surgical specialties & super-specialties

  • Sample size- A total of 100 doctors including Professors,Associate professors, Assistant Professers, resistrars, Senior& Junior Residents and medical officers working in surgical specialties & super-specialties like Surgery, Neurosurgery, Gynecology, Orthopedics, Eye & ENT , Urology, Cardiology etc. were participated

  • Sampling technique- Random sampling technique

  • Sampling criteria- Everyday 2-3 doctors working in surgical specialties & super-specialties were selected randomly till the completion of sample size after explaining the purpose of the study. Informed consent/assent was taken from them and confidentiality of the selected participants was also maintained

  • Inclusive criteria- Doctors working in surgical specialties & super-specialties of GMC Jammu & were present during the day of data collection and were willing to participate in the study.

  • Exclusion criteria: Doctors who were not willing to participate in the study

  • Development of tool- Self-administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire having knowledge, Attitude & Practices related questions

  • Description of tool


Section A-Socio-demographic characteristics of the Doctors (age, gender ,level of training, specialty, designation and duration of services etc.)


Sections B- Contained knowledge, Attitude & Practices related questions


Knowledge –This sections contained 10 structured knowledge questions regarding SAP having four options. The participants have to choose right one. One mark was given for each correct answer and zero for incorrect answer. The maximum score was 10 and minimum score was zero. Scoring was done on the basis of marks as >80%(9-10)=very good,60-79%(6-8) =Good,41-59% ( 4-8)=Fair,<40%(< 4)=poor.


Attitude - This sections evaluated doctor’s attitude towards national SAP guidelines There were 10 questions of Attitude having the 5 points rating scale as Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree and it consists of total 50 marks. There were positive and negative statements. Positive statements were scored 5,4,3,2,1 and negative statements were scored 1,2,3,4,5 respectively Scoring was done on the basis of marks as >80%(40-50)=very good,60-79%(30- 39)=Good,41-59%(20-29) =Fair,<40%(<20) =poor


Practices – This sections contained adherence of doctors towards different SAP practices. There were 10 structured practices questionnaire having options of Yes or No. The participants have to choose right one. One mark was given for each correct Practice and zero for incorrect practices .The maximum score was 10 and minimum score was zero. Scoring was done on the basis of marks as >80%(9-10)=very good,60-79%(6-8) =Good,41-59% ( 4-8)=Fair,<40%(< 4)=poor.

  • Validity of tool - by the experts in this field

  • Permission- obtained from the concerned authorities of GMC Jammu

  • Data collection by myself and each participants was given 10-15 minutes time to complete that questionnaire and collected at the end of the prescribed time

  • Data analysis with appropriate statistical test in terms of frequencies & percentage.


RESULTS

The present study was non-experimental descriptive study carried out to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of surgical staff towards preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis at GMC Jammu


A total of 100 doctors including Professors,Associate professors, Assistant Professers, resistrars, Senior& Junior Residents and medical officers working in surgical specialties & super-specialties like Surgery, Neurosurgery, Gynecology, Orthopedics, Eye & ENT , Urology, Cardiology etc. were participated . Among the 61 were Males while 39 were females, 57 were less 40 years of age while 43 were above 40 years of age, 63 were having less than 5 years of service while 37 had more than 5 years of services at GMC Jammu and 88 were working in surgical specialties while 12 were working in surgical super-specialties.


In the knowledge section, we asked about knowledge regarding indication,first line of SAP, second line for SAP , drug of choice ,dosage, duration of SAP from the participants. Among the total, 22 participants had very good knowledge regarding SAP, 55 had good knowledge, 14 had fair knowledge and 9 had poor knowledge regarding SAP.(Table-1)


Table-1: Knowledge of doctor’s regarding SAP


Frequency

Percent

V. Good (8-10)

22

22

Good (6-7)

55

55

Fair (4-5)

14

14

Poor (<4)

9

9

Maximum =10 Minimum=0


In the Attitude section, we asked about attitude towards prophylactic surgical antibiotics and its effects on rate of infection, patient outcome, antibiotic resistance, side-effects etc. from the participants. Among the total, 16 participants had very good attitude towards SAP, 58 had good attitude, 12 had fair attitude and 14 had poor attitude towards SAP.(Table-2)


Table-2: Doctor’s attitude towards national SAP guidelines


Frequency

Percent

V. Good (40-50)

16

16

Good (30-39)

58

58

Fair (20-29)

12

12

Poor (<20)

14

14

Maximum =50 Minimum=5


In the practice section, we asked about practices and deviations of SAP guidelines in different surgical condition from the participants. Among the total , 14 participants had very good practices of SAP, 57 follow good practices,11 had fair practices and 18 follow poor practices of SAP.(Table-3)


Table-3: Adherence of doctors towards different SAP practices


Frequency

Percent

V. Good (8-10)

14

14

Good (6-7)

57

57

Fair (4-5)

11

11

Poor (<4)

18

18

Maximum =10 Minimum=0


Discussion

Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective management strategy for reducing postoperative infections, provided that appropriate antibiotics are given at the correct time for appropriate durations and for appropriate surgical procedures (Munckhof, W. 2005).


Our study results showed a adequate knowledge, positive attitude and good adherence towards antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines among the doctors working in various surgical specialties & super-specialties in GMC Jammu. Almost analogous results were found in different studies conducted in different setting and countries with some variation which might be due to many factors including differences in local guidelines, personal experiences, studies settings, and medication availability (Ahmed, A. M. et al., 2019; Binown, K. A. et al., 2021; Pelullo, C. P. et al., 2020; Munckhof, W. 2005; Baniasadi, S. et al., 2016; & Hohmann, C. et al., 2012).


The present study findings indicate that Hospital surgical antibiotic prophylaxis protocols should be regularly reviewed, as both the cost of individual antibiotics and the endemicity of multi-resistant bacteria in certain units or hospitals are subject to frequent change. Effective educational programs compiling national and hospital guidelines may improve SAP prescription and decrease SSIs. More studies are needed to identify the gaps in knowledge and practices of doctors in different settings.


Conclusion

The results of this study showed that doctors’ knowledge regarding surgical antibiotics prophylaxis in various clinical scenarios and their attitude and practices of national and local hospital guidelines was satisfactory. But still there is a scope of improvement in order to reduce the incidence of preventable surgical site infections.


Furthermore, Implementation of these SAP guidelines into practice is very crucial and an institution-based training program about SAP is extremely endorsed


References

  1. Ahmed, A. M., Nasr, S., Ahmed, A. M., & Elkhidir, O. (2019). Knowledge, attitude and practice of surgical staff towards preoperative surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at an academic tertiary hospital in Sudan. Patient safety in surgery13(1), 1-6.

  2. Baniasadi, S., Alaeen, Z., & Shadmehr, M. B. (2016). Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis: a descriptive study among thoracic surgeons. Tanaffos15(3), 154.

  3. Binown, K. A., Alhabradi, F. A., Aljahani, A. M., & Shadid, A. M. (2021). Saudi orthopedic surgeons’ knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. J Musculoskelet Surg Res 5, 235-45.

  4. Global Guidelines for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. 3, Important Issues in the Approach to Surgical Site Infection Prevention. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536426/

  5. Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Bakar, M. A. (2018). Health care-associated infections–an overview. Infection and drug resistance11, 2321.

  6. Hohmann, C., Eickhoff, C., Radziwill, R., & Schulz, M. (2012). Adherence to guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery patients in German hospitals: a multicentre evaluation involving pharmacy interns. Infection40(2), 131-137.

  7. Munckhof, W. (2005). Antibiotics for surgical prophylaxis. Aust Prescr 28, 38-40.

  8. Pelullo, C. P., Pepe, A., Napolitano, F., Coppola, N., & Di Giuseppe, G. (2020). Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Knowledge and Attitudes among Resident Physicians in Italy. Antibiotics9(6), 357.

  9. Reichman, D. E., & Greenberg, J. A. (2009). Reducing surgical site infections: a review. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology2(4), 212.

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