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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Education and Literature | Volume:3 Issue:2 | April 10, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjel.2022.v03i02.002       Download PDF       HTML       XML

H imalayan Journal of Education and Literature


Research Article

A Construction of Visual-Audio-Oral Course for English Majors from the Perspective of Continuation Theory


Chen Hongping and Liu Qing

North China Electric Power University, No.689 Huadian Road, Lianchi District, Baoding City, Hebei Province

*Corresponding Author

Chen Hongping


Article History

Received: 29.03.2022

Accepted: 07.04.2022

Published: 10.04.2022


Citations:

Chen Hongping & Liu Qing. (2022); A Construction of Visual-Audio-Oral Course for English Majors from the Perspective of Continuation Theory. Hmlyan Jr Edu Lte, 3(2) 7-11

Copyright @ 2022: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non commercial use (NonCommercial, or CC-BY-NC) provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI:


Abstract: In recent years, the teaching concept of promoting learning by continuation tasks has attracted more and more attention. Different from the traditional teaching model, the English curriculum teaching model under the guidance of continuation theory pays more attention to the combination of language input and output and the combination of learning and application. Under the guidance of the continuation theory, this paper proposes to adopt the teaching method of continuation by speaking or writing in the English visual-audio-oral course. That is to say, this theory provides a specific high-quality context and a creative imitation model for the following language expression, stimulating students' language thinking as well as the willingness to communicate, and improving students' foreign language learning efficiency as well as application ability. At the same time, this thesis also provides a new perspective for English teaching.










Keywords: Continuation Theory ; Visual-Audio-Oral Course; High-Quality Context


Introduction

In the context of foreign language education in the era of globalization, visual-audio-oral course is one of the important means of English teaching. English audio-visual and oral courses should pay attention to the combination of learning and application, meet the current and future needs of college students' English listening and speaking ability, gradually develop students' autonomous learning ability, enhance cross-cultural communication awareness and communication ability, and improve comprehensive cultural literacy. However, due to the limitations of objective English language environment and the solidification of traditional teaching ideas, the teacher’s teaching in our country has some shortcomings. With regard to these shortcomings, I will redesign English course and make some improvements.


Classroom Observation and Evaluation

I conducted an English classroom observation in a school. And the teaching objects are about 60 freshmen. The students in this class have a good overall foundation, but their personality is relatively introverted. Their cognitive level has improved to a certain extent compared with before. On the whole, they can extract information in English, but they are weak in describing the overall event, expounding significance and conducting critical appraisal. This class is an visual-audio-oral class. The teacher plays some extracurricular materials, such as BBC, Ted speeches and other videos to train students' listening.The video materials are all without subtitles. Before playing, the teacher uses several related questions to attract the students' attention. Then, after playing the video for the second or third time, the teacher invites some students to answer the questions. Most of the students who answer the questions sit in the front row. For the words or sentences that students can not understand, the teacher will explain them to help students understand the content of the materials. Finally, the teacher plays the video several times to let the students listen and understand the listening materials again.


For this class, I makes the following comments. There are two main advantages. One is that the teaching process is smooth. Teachers can use students' existing knowledge reserves to teach them. What is more, students are also clear



about the teaching process and activities. Another advantage is that the teaching content is novel. Teachers do not stick to textbooks, but is able to collect information from the network in combination with reality to expand extracurricular knowledge.


The main problems in this class can be summarized as follows.

  1. Students’ interest is low and their participation is not very high

Some audio materials selected by the teacher are too difficult. In College English visual-audio-oral classroom, the biggest problem students face is that they can't understand the listening materials. In particular, students with relatively weak English foundation can not understand the contents of video and audio in the teaching materials, so they are easy to lose interest in English learning, which is directly reflected in the decline of classroom participation and the lack of time invested in extracurricular English learning. In the long run, it is difficult to improve students' English level. What is more, students are prone to be tired of learning. Therefore, teachers should delete the materials with too much difficulty and retain the materials with moderate difficulty. What students should do is to “seeing”, “ listening” and “speaking” . The role of teachers is only to provide indicative, guiding and enlightening actions. However, in this class, the teacher leaves little space for students to participate, only asks students to answer questions, and does not design some group activities to improve students' enthusiasm.


  1. Students lack sufficient language output

Students have obvious anxiety and lack of self-confidence in oral expression,which is reflected in the lack of vocabulary, simple or inaccurate grammatical structure, single language structure, short speaking time, long time to organize language and so on.


  1. Students' creative thinking has not been fully exercised

In class, the teacher tends to the traditional listening class, focusing on listening and discrimination training, so as to cultivate students' test taking skills. In this way, students' understanding of the text is piecemeal, only focusing on a word, phrase or sentence. It is difficult to understand the full text and truly realize the unity of listening and English thinking, which is not conducive to cultivating students' communicative competence. The form of "speaking" is usually a retelling or question answering of video materials. The form is single. At the same time, the content lacks creativity and logical evolution, which is difficult to improve students' English critical thinking and comprehensive application ability.


The introduction of design concept

In recent years, a series of continuation tasks advocated by Professor Wang Chuming of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies are effective methods to promote learners' foreign language learning with Chinese characteristics, which have been recognized by second language acquisition experts and foreign language teachers at home and abroad, and have been studied and verified in different teaching fields.


Wang Chuming first puts forward the idea of continuation task under the guidance of input-output theory and alignment theory, a method of writing practice after reading comprehension (Wang Chuming, 2012). Later, it gradually develops into a new concept of language acquisition-continuation theory which includes two basic ideas: First, language is acquired through “continuation”. Second, the language learning efficiency is achieved through “continuation”. Interaction is maintained by "continuation", that is, there is no interaction without "continuation". The input and output of language intersect through "continuation". And the advantages of understanding and the disadvantages of output directly form a leveling effect, which has “meaning potential”. Language develops and evolves in the process of leveling learners’ productive ability and understanding ability, in which learners’ comprehensive language proficiency has been improved as well, because “continuation” is the engine of “leveling”. “Continuation” means that the speaker undertakes the expression of others, expounds his own thoughts and improves language communication skills. It is to achieve collaboration with others and learn language from others through interaction. The advantage of "continuation" is that in the rich context created above, learners' internal expression motivation is able to be stimulated. After understanding the above language, learners can use the correct input above in the continuation to promote language learning. For the descriptive and narrative materials, learners should take the story plots as the main line for continuation, and imitate the original language in the process of continuation to realize the continuity of the plot. In addition, for the argumentative materials, learners should continue to write with thinking logic as the main line, and imitate the logical form of the original text to expand the argument.


In the practical application of continuation theory, there is not only continuation on writing after reading, but also continuation on writing after listening, continuation on speaking after listening or continuation after translation. From a foreign language learning promotion method to a second language acquisition theory, it shows that the "continuation theory" takes a bottom-up development path. This not only determines that the "continuation theory" has strong theoretical explanatory power, but also shows that it has strong applicability and operability. And scholars have studied and verified the various effects of "continuation" in language acquisition, which provides sufficient support for “promoting learning by continuation”. Through a 21


week empirical study, Liu Yan and Ni Chuanbin (2018) have examined the more effective real-time synergy and delayed learning promotion effect of continuation on speaking in terms of learners' oral fluency, lexical complexity and syntactic accuracy. Zhang Meng (2019) proposed to combine with multimedia teaching and confirmed the feasibility and the promotion effect of “continuation on speaking after listening” teaching method in the form of data analysis, questionnaire and interview. Zhang Xiuqin and Wang Yingli (2020) compared the two interactive effects, which occurred between students with the same English level and students with different English levels. The results show that “continuation on speaking after reading” makes the learning effect of the latter better. Under the guidance of continuation theory, visual-audio-oral course realizes the combination of vision and listening, the integration of contextual information and individual thinking as well as the coordination of video, audio and text, which improves learners' oral expression ability.


Curriculum Design

I will delete the too difficult materials and only select the Ted lecture Why some people find excercise harder than others in the teaching content. In this way, students with weak English foundation are taken care of. And the central idea of this speech is to let us look at problems in different ways of thinking. Sometimes when you do something from another angle and focus on your goals, you have a great probability of success. For example, there is a strategy called “ keep your eyes on the prize”in this material. Two groups will run to the finish line.And the scientist tells the experience group to use this strategy, focus their their attention on the finish line, avoid looking around and image a spotlight is shining on that goal. Another contrast group is told to look around the environment as they naturally would, they will notice the finish line, but they might notice the garbage can off to the right. Then the scientist makes the two groups estimate the distance to verify whether this strategy is successful for changing their perceptual experience. The result is that people who keep their eyes on the prize see the finish line as 30 percent closer than people who look around as they naturally would.


The teaching objectives are divided into three aspects. At first, the knowledge goal is to let students learn some new words and expressions. For instance, there are “discomfort, skepticism, perception, intrigue, blurry,render,filter,ambiguous, fascinate, inspirational, convince, insurmountable, delve,get back into shape, international attention, make sense of, in tantem with and in the dumps”. The ability goal is that students can extract the general idea of the text, continue to write or speak the listening materials, and express their personal views. At last but not the least, the emotional goal shows that students are able to change the perspective of looking at things, and learn to look at things with a positive eye, cultivating a positive attitude towards life.


The focus of teaching is to cultivate students' listening ability, especially listening and understanding key words and the speaker's intention and attitude. And the difficulty point of teaching is to cultivate students' expression ability. Students can continue on writing with thinking logic as the main line, and imitate the views, wording and logical form of the original text to expand and consolidate the arguments. The whole class lasts 90 minutes


  • Before continuation on writing

The teacher will send the listening questions to the students in advance to help students to understand the content of the material as well as form effective input. Questions are as follows: How could it be that when she looks at a person,an object or an event, she sees something very different than somebody else does? What is it about what one person is thinking and feeling that leads people to see the world in an entirely different way? Why some people can’t bring back to their ideal weight? What is “keep your eyes on the prize”? (2 minutes)


Next, the teacher plays the first two / three parts of the speech. This speech can be played back and forth by the teacher. Students will focus on watching, recognize the listening content, and learn the pronunciation and intonation, English expression and English logical thinking, which provides a creative imitation model for learners' following expression. Continuation on writing not only enables students to express what they think, but also improves the accuracy and idiomaticity of language use and enhances the ability of discourse coherence. After the play, the teacher asks some students to answer the above questions.(12minutes)


In addition,when students are familiar with this learning method, the task of selecting materials can also be handed over to students. According to the teaching materials and teaching arrangements, the teacher formulates the specified topics of this semester in advance. Students select one of these different topic tasks in groups and prepare relevant input materials in advance. In order to ensure the quality of language input materials, the teacher needs to maintain communication with students, provides guidance and suggestions, and checks the content, difficulty and task design of materials. From passively accepting knowledge in the classroom to participating in classroom construction, students not only change their roles, but also fully mobilize their learning initiative.


After the students answer the questions, the teacher plays the video again to correct the students' answers, analyze the grammar, lexical difficulties and cultural knowledge points involved in the materials (such as the U.S. presidential election), remove the obstacles and let the students fully understand the language expression. In the process of explanation, the teacher strengthens


students' imitation consciousness at all levels by highlighting the characteristics of material wording and context, so as to make the continuation close to the original text as much as possible, strengthen the interactive effect of input and output, and produce leveling effect.(12 minutes)


  • While continuation on writing

Students will discuss in groups according to the information received, and then continue to write the next content.The distribution method is a group of 4 students at the front and back tables. In the process of continuous writing, the teacher should control the writing time and know the students' writing situation. And the teacher should not only emphasize the independent creativity of the continuation content, but also emphasize the high imitation of the continuation language (vocabulary, rhetorical style, logical cohesion, context integration, etc.).(25 minutes)


  • After continuation on writing

Students watch the remaining 1 / 3 of the speech and make modifications and supplements after comparing the original material with their own continuation.(5 minutes)


Next, students first select the better representative in the group, and then the student representative of each group will read the continuation content on the podium.(15minutes)


Then, students will listen to the continuation of other groups and evaluate their continuations according to language, structure, theme, style and other parameters.(7minutes)


What is more, the teacher will make comments and corrections, and summarize the use of key words and good sentences in “continuation on speaking”, so that students can enrich language accumulation and expression in seeing, listening and speaking.(8 minutes)


In the evaluation stage, students will first learn other people's “continuation on speaking” achievements, accumulate vocabulary and grammar, enrich sentence expression and develop their autonomous learning ability. The second is that students will refer to other people's creative models, imitate other people's voice and intonation, and absorb other people's thinking deduction. Finally, students can carefully listen to the feedback given by teachers and students, reflect on their shortcomings, and carry out targeted practice and modification, so as to effectively improve the English language level.


At the end of class, the teacher guides the students to summarize the knowledge learned in this class, sublimate this class and put forward life suggestions: we see the world not through our eyes, but through our


thinking. Change an angle or cognition, and you will find a better way to spend the period of restlessness, sadness and despair, which will help students establish a correct outlook on life and values (3 minutes).


Finally, the teacher asks the students to continue to modify their continuation after class. And the teacher will record the relevant data of the original work, classroom continuation, after-class modification for formative assessment, and then analyze, compare and study the above data so as to grasp the students' progress and shortcomings.(1 minute)


It should be pointed out that the reason why students are not directly arranged to continue oral tasks is that each student's level is different. In the case of weak English foundation, even if students accept high-quality input, there may still be many problems in students' oral output, mainly in grammar. Through writing first and then oral output, students are able to pay more attention to the grammatical accuracy and language rigor of output, so as to improve their English language expression ability. With the gradual improvement of their ability, the design of "continue" task can be adjusted to continuation on speaking after listening to materials according to the specific situation.


Conclusion

The goal of College English teaching is to “cultivate college students' ability to absorb and exchange professional information in English, and enhance their English communication ability and subject speculation ability in scientific literacy and professional fields” (Cai Jigang,2019). The teaching method of “continuation” to promote learning opens up a new idea and provides a practical teaching means for English audio-visual and oral courses. It can solve the problems of "input-output" asymmetry and insufficient relevance in College English teaching. At the same time, it can also integrate the comprehensive improvement of the four dimensions of thinking creation ability, language imitation ability, written output ability and oral output ability into a complete system to help students exercise their English expression ability, cultivate their interest and enthusiasm in English, and improve their comprehensive ability to use English.


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