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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies | Volume:3 Issue:3 | May 30, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjhcs.2022.v03i03.003       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Effectiveness of Religion and National Values Curriculum as Agent of Social Change for the Improvement of Primary Education in Ogun State, Nigeria


Dr. Anderson Sele Paingha and Dr. Dorgu T.E

Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State


*Corresponding Author

Gnakon Flora Carenne Beugré


Article History

Received: 10.05.2022

Accepted: 20.05.2022

Published: 30.05.2022


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of religion and national value curriculum as agent of social change for improving primary school education in Ogun State, Nigeria. The population used for the study consists of two hundred (200) primary school teachers in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 20 primary school teachers which were randomly selected from each of the chosen school for the study. The research instrument used for the study was a questionnaire contain items of the study, seeking information for the purpose of this study. Two research hypotheses were tested for the study. The data collected were analyzed using Chi-square (X2) at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that there is significant effect of national value education curriculum on moral improvement in primary school education. It was therefore recommended that, Religion and value education should be incorporated in the national policy while inculcation of desirable values in the pupils is essential for meeting the crises of character deformormation and there should be strengthening of Religion and value education as possible paradigm for behaviour transformation and ethical reorientation.


Keywords: Religion, National Value, Curriculum, Agent of Social Change, improvement.


INTRODUCTION

Religious education forms part of the basic national curriculum for primary schools, this may be a surprising fact but it has come up to be the truth. Some individuals have linked religion with social habituation and they have also gone a long way to argue that it has no consign in either a working environment or a school. At the same time, others believe religion in education have to be about fostering students within a meticulous religious faith system (Onongha, 2011). Over the years, religious education has actively been known to be a strong promoter of the values of genuineness, fairness, honesty, deference for all and care of the environment. Religious education curriculum consign specific emphasis on children appreciating themselves and others, it teaches us the real responsibility of family and the community in religious principle and action, the contentment of diversity in society through the acknowledgment of similarities and differences, and individual custodianship on earth.


Curriculum experts have argued that curriculum making either at the level of development, design, implementation or reformation needs the inputs of critical stakeholders if it is to be relevant, meaningful and adequate to meet the needs of the people for whom it has been put together. In his opinion, Dewey in Danladi (2011) contends that education is a social construct which is a part of society and should reflect the community. In this sense, curriculum is the thrust of education vested with force thereby integrating societal trends, traditional values and individual expression. In his conception of curriculum,Oyeneyin (2008) affirmed that curriculum is the course of deeds and experiences through which learners become the adults they should be for success in adult society. In other words, curriculum encourages the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring both within and outside school for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. However, curriculum may refer to a well-defined and prescribed course of studies, which pupils must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. That is, curriculum is being construed as learning activities that make up a particular system of education. Ackerman (2008) in his examination of cognitive development theory explained in details how the curriculum is sequenced in schools.


Religious education curriculum according to Hilary (2004) helps to develop the children knowledge and understanding of Christianity and in some cases, not just Christianity but also other religious cultures and other belief systems. Previous studies have also shown that religious education curriculum has encouraged children to learn from various religious beliefs, values and culture while at the same time, exploring their own beliefs regarding their religion. This comprehensive study in primary schools has also helped children to mature personally and socially as well as refining their psychological judgments and decisions on religious, moral and social issues, preparing them for life in a secular society. Religious education curriculum according to Pauline (2001) has made a significant involvement principally in its center of attention on promoting value for everyone equally. Religious education has taken a front responsibility in fighting against injustice, unfairness and pessimistic bias. By teaching or providing religious education curriculum to children who just begin primary school means you have just opened the doors to moral development for them.


Historically, moral teachings have been central to all religions. For instance, historically speaking, since the time of the Bible, moral teachings have been central to Judaism. The Bible is, at its core, a book of ethical teachings. Talmudic sages are seen as moral exemplars, and medieval writers such as Bahya ibn Pakudah and Maimonides, Moses HaylmL uzzatto in the 18th century and the Musar Movement of the 19th century developed a systematic approach to the ethical teachings of the Bible and Talmud in order to teach morals (Adediran, Dorgu & Ogunfunmilakin, 2019). The same goes for the Islamic religion. Also, religious institutions have a way of imparting moral lessons in their adherents.


Moral development in religion of a child, according to Adediran, Adelegun and Atanda (2019) results automatically from the social life of the school. The child as a member of the group imbibes the attitudes, values and general behaviour of the group and continually tries to mould himself according to the norm and values of the group. Such adjustment to life constitutes his moral development. Sharp (2012) and Rowe and Newton (2009) opined that value education is a process of aiding the child in such adjustment. The subject national value education has come to acquire increasing prominence in educational discussions at all levels during recent times in the country. The issue has been projected as one of national priority in the National Educational Policy (NPE, 2004). The policy declares: “the growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for readjustment in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values”. According to National Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Education (2012) submitted that, the crisis of values the society is passing through “demands more explicit and deliberate educational efforts towards value development”.


Value-based education according to Adediran, and Adeniyi (2019)is capable of revealing which morals are “bad” and “good”. The change in behaviour comes from wrestling with questions about right and wrong. It is a common knowledge that if any society, nation or state must succeed, she must have certain core values to which she attaches considerable significance. In Nigeria, it is generally accepted that the core values of the Nigeria nation inherent in a democracy is respect for the rights and differences of others. There are, however, certain values which citizens of a democratic society should internalize if that democracy is to survive. These core values includes such values as a belief in the worth and dignity of every human being, personal freedom, equity and justice for all, discipline, integrity, dignity of labour, social justice, religious tolerance, patriotism, self-reliance and a sense of responsibility for and brotherhood with one’s fellows. The core values also includes: respect for certain governmental principles such as rule of law, due process of law, equal right under the law and the idea of government by representation and consent. These core values of Nigeria nation represent the dreams of the founding fathers of the country. But all seems to be history today because of the effects of the loss of morals.


The schools according to Atanda, Oguntayo and Adediran (2019) is a democratic society, as one socialization agency have a responsibility to help children acquire the values which are necessary for full participation in the society. These values are branded “core values” because they are the very heart of the way of life in a democratic society. Thus, the school being an agent of social reproduction and transformation is expected to assist the society in its attempt to socialize the people. It has the responsibility of examining carefully and classifying those values that are permanent to the society (Pauline, 2001). Through its various social programmes in addition to academic, the school should be able to change the orientation of the youths under its care. It is the responsibility of the school to shape the lives of the young ones, and equip them with the right values. By equipping them with the right values, they now become responsible and productive members of the society. Stressing further that without values, men are not human beings and cannot take decisions that can be of benefits to the society. Indeed values are of significance to national development. Entrenching religion and National values curriculum will serve as agent of social change for the improvement of primary education in the Nigeria.


Objectives of the study

The specific objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the effectiveness of religious education curriculum for moral improvement in primary school education

  2. To examine the efficacy of national value education curriculum for moral improvement in primary school education


Hypotheses

  1. Religious education curriculum will not significantly affects the moral improvement in primary school education.

  2. There is no significant effect of national value education curriculum on moral improvement in primary school education.


Methodology

The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Population comprises of all primary school teachers in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 20 primary schools; 10 teachers were randomly selected from each of the chosen school to make a total of 200 as sample for study. A self-developed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The questionnaire contained items on the main title of study.The instrument was given to experts in the department of measurement and evaluation at the Olabisi Onabanjo University, Agoiwoye, Ogun State for construct and content validations. Reliability of the instrument was determined to be 0.82, using Cronbach Alpha. Data collected were analyzed using chi-square statistical tool.


Data Analysis and Results Presentation

Ho1: Religious education curriculum will not significantly affects the moral improvement in primary school education.


Contingency table on Religious education curriculum and moral improvement in primary school education

Respondents

N

Cal val (x2)

Df

Tab val (x2)

Level of significance

Decision

SA - 357



1000



103.3



4



9.49



0.05



Rejected

A - 272

D - 264

SD - 107


Table above shows that the calculated chi-square value of 103.3 at a degree of freedom of 4 is greater than the critical value of 9.49 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which states that religious education curriculum will not significantly affects the moral improvement in primary school education was rejected.


Ho2: There is no significant effect of national value education curriculum on moral improvement in primary school education.


Contingency table on effect of national value education curriculum and moral improvement in primary school education

Respondents

N

Cal val (x2)

Df

Tab val (x2)

Level of significance

Decision

SA - 260



1000



55.4



4



9.49



0.05



Rejected

A - 322

D - 260

SD - 158


Table above shows that the calculated chi-square value of 55.4.08 at a degree of freedom of 4 is greater than the critical value of 9.49 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant effect of national value education curriculum on moral improvement in primary school education was rejected.


Discussion of findings

Based on the findings, the hypothesis one which says religious education curriculum will not significantly affects the moral improvement in primary school education was rejected. Which means religious education curriculum will significantly affects the moral improvement in primary school education. The findings is in line with the findings of Barner (2001) who submitted that, religious education has made a significant improvement on the promotion of value for everyone equally. Religious education has taken a front responsibility in fighting against injustice, unfairness and pessimistic bias.


The research further revealed from the hypothesis two that there is significant effect of national value education curriculum on moral improvement in primary school education. The findings is in collaboration with the findings of Aggarwal (2007) who reports that national value education generally moulds the character of the people leading them to know and appreciate things that are worthy and good. He observed that value education is all about character moulding, positive attitudinal changes, dedication to duty, honesty, hard-working, trustworthy, patience and truthfulness. Therefore it abhors all forms of negative practices like examination malpractice, corruption, sexual abuse, bribery, cultism, terrorism, drug abuse amongst others.


Conclusion

Arising from the findings, the study discovered that, very little had been done to understand and train the peoples psyche to utilize satisfactorily the national belief system, ethics and conventions. Nigeria is richly endowed with both human and material resources, yet the people experience more hardship and separateness as well as the underutilization of the resources. However, this unsound state of affairs should not be allowed unabated. We require and deserve true transformation of the citizens in the area of psyche for effective understanding of the society. True transformation begins with a transformed person and a transformed mind. This would lead to the understanding of leadership roles and good governance. The transformed mind will understand that if a nation lack efficient, effective and impartial enforcement systems it cannot produce efficient, effective and just leadership, just economic and socio-political outcomes, these could be attained when citizens realizes their history, national values and morals etc. which would guide one towards good governance and effective integration of people.


Recommendations

  1. Religion and values education should be incorporated in the national policy while inculcation of desirable values in the pupils is essential for meeting the crises of character

  2. There should be strengthening of values education as a possible paradigm for behaviour transformation and ethical reorientation.

  3. National policy on values education should be put in place as a reference instrument that will guide individuals conduct in the country.

  4. There is need to create and sustain a moral environment in the country which will discourage all forms of evil behaviours among the Nigerian people.

  5. The government needs to strengthen religious education which had helped to stabilize the society in the past.

  6. Religion and values should be the guiding principles of the life, which facilitates the all-round development of a person.


References

  1. Adediran, A.A., Dorgu, E.T., & Ogunfunmilakin, B.I. (2019). Social Studies, Religion and law related education as preventive measures against undesirable behavior and social violence in Nigeria. Paper presented at the TOFAC conference between 1st-3rd July,2019 at Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State

  2. Adediran, A.A., & Adeniyi, A.O. (2019). Socio-comparative analysis of the relevance of Islamic and Christian religious studies solving religious violence in Ogun State, Nigeria. Paper presented at the faculty of Arts annual conference between 14th-17th April,2019 at the Adeleke University, Ede, Osun state, Nigeria.

  3. Adediran, A.A., Adelegun, K.G., & Atanda, J.O. (2019).Assessing the impact of Social Studies education for addressing the challenges ethnic integration in higher institutions in Ogun State, Nigeria. Paper presented at the 13th- conference of the association for the Sociology of education between 7th-11th October,2019 at the University of Jos, Nigeria.

  4. Aggarwal, J.C. (2007). Teacher and education in a developing society. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House

  5. Atanda, J.O., Oguntayo, F.F., & Adediran, A.A. (2019). Assessing civic education as instrument for building true democratic structures among students of tertiary institutions in Ogun State, Nigeria. Paper presented at the Social Studies association of Nigeria(SOSAN) National conference between 26th-29th August,2019 at Adeyemi College of education, Ondo, Ondo State,Nigeria.

  6. Barnes, P. (2001). Reforming Religious Education in Northern Ireland. A critical Review: British Journal of Religious Education. 19(2) 81-93

  7. Danladi, E.N. (2011). .Introduction to curriculum and instruction. Kaduna. Joyce graphic printers & Publishers Co.

  8. National Educational Policy. (NPE, 2004). NEP course book on issues in the teaching and learning of primary schools Social Studies. Ibadan.University press

  9. Hilary, C.A. (2004). The influence of pentecostalism on catholic priests and seminarians in Nigeria. Lagos. Rex Charles & Patrick Ltd.

  10. Primary and Secondary Education (2012). Foundation and teaching of Social Studies. Owerri: Whyte and Whyte Publishing.

  11. Pauline, M.L. (2001).The church in west Africa. Bauch. Deka Publication

  12. Onongha, K.O. (2011).Pentecostalism in Nigeria. Phenomenon, prospects and problems to mainlines. Ikeja-Lagos.Jamiro press link.

  13. Oyeneyin, A.M (2008).Perspectives on classroom teaching, Abuja, Mart-Monic investment Ltd

  14. Rowe, S., & Newton, O. (2009). Developing an ethical school through appreciating practice? Students’ lived experience of ethical situations in school. Journal of Ethics and Education. 3 (4), 41-55

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