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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Education and Literature | Volume:3 Issue:3 | June 30, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjel.2022.v03i03.002       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Parents Involvement and Learning Skills of Students in Upper Basic Classes One in Ondo State Nigeria


OLOWO, Oluwatoyin Olusegun PhD1 IGWEIKE, Okiotor Margaret*2 and ADEYEMI, Chistianah Oluwayemisi2

1Department of Social Science Education Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

2Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

IGWEIKE, Okiotor Margaret


Article History

Received: 10.06.2022

Accepted: 20.06.2022

Published: 30.06.2022


Abstract: This study explores parents involvement and learning skills development of students in upper basic class one in Ondo State, Nigeria. It equally determined the impact of parental level of education and contribution on learners’ overall skills development. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population for the study comprised all students in upper basic class one and their parents in Ondo State Nigeria. A total number of 308 participants were selected using simple purposive sampling technique of males and females in upper basic class one student involved in the study. Learners’ competence skills Assessment Test and Parental set-up Questionnaire were validated with reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.84 respectively. Mean percentage scores and ANOVA were used to analyze the data collected for the study. Result showed that parental level of education had significant input on learner’s overall skills development. Findings revealed that parental involvement was a significant success determinant factor in learner’s skills development. It was therefore recommended that parents should set-up efforts towards enhancing their children skills development at home.


Keywords: Parents involvement, Learning skills, development, students, upper Basic class.


INTRODUCTION

The world (Nigeria inclusive) is not static; it is changing due to advancement in knowledge and globalization. This change is not limited to the political front but to all aspects of man’s life. The family as a primary institution is not exempted from this influence as the changes can be noticed in both structure and functions (Kadiri, 2009). Since society cannot be in vacuum, parents who serve as the bedrock of the family either nuclear or extended has important role to play as the primary agent of socialization. The family according to Kadiri (2009) conventionally refers to a group of people living together with assigned roles of a mother, father and possibly children in a home. On account of this assertion, there is a strong degree of organic relationship between the family and the society. Hence, the family’s way of life is predicated by the society’s way of life.

Maccoby (1992) averred that the family/parents perform multiplicity of roles in the general upbringing/socialization of the individual and most of these roles are deliberate or intended while others are not intended but are ultimately internalized by the entire members of the family. In Nigerian society, the family engages in transmitting culture, educating the young ones by teaching them social competencies and skills, inculcating in them the acceptable or approved norms, beliefs, values and attitudes. Based on this, one can resolve that the general well-being of a child lies in the hands of the parents the (family). The family educational background and socio-economic status play vital roles in the learning process of the child. The child’s performance whether positive or negative could be attributed to the kind of the home (family) such a child comes from (Asikha 2010, Ogunbola and Adewale 2012).


Background to the Problem

The family irrespective of its size performed four basic functions in all societies. This universal functions as argued by Murdock (1994) include sexual, reproductive, economic and educational functions. Without these four functions the society will remain static which is not good enough for the societal demand. The sexual and productive functions pave way for procreating of members of the society and without education there would be no culture, which is the total ways of life of any meaningful society (Utulu and Bulya 2009). Due to misplace of priorities and new trends in the 21st century, the family (parents) seems to neglect their primary focus in the face of new challenges such as divorce, separation, early marriages, increased violence against women, child abuse, homosexual and gay rights marriage, drug addiction and many others. Njoku (2007), Okam (2005), Utulu and Bulya (2009) and other scholars in their related studies revealed that modern society (Nigeria) place more emphasis on wealth, power, fame and sex than human and warm loving relationship.


Additionally, other factors responsible for family dynamics in the present dispensation are: child’s circumstance of birth, religion, language, ethnic differences and parental occupation. As a result of societal stigma on children given birth to out of wedlock, many single parents and their children suffer emotional stress, economic need and social disadvantages. Adegoke (2003) and Olusakin (2005) revealed that violent adolescents (children) with many challenges (such as dropping out of school, sex abuse, drug abuse among others) because of inability of parents/family to assist them due to parental poor styles. Hence, birth, the school and family (parent) can make or mar the future of the child. Adolescents from the family with democratic parenting style tend to have healthy social development but the family who adopts authoritative parental style breeds adolescent of defective social behaviour (Utulu and Bulya, 2009).


The parental dynamism seems to have given room for more social problems than ever, hence the need for more tact in handling social issues. On account of this, more relevance agencies need to be brought in to address the myriads of the problems from the foregoing new trends created by parental dynamism. Despite these challenges, Bozimo and Ikwumelu (2009) averred that teaching moral education, citizenship education, building early child/parent communication, discouraging the spirit of get rich quick syndrome among family members are ways of promoting the teaching of values to children. In agreement with the above submission, Okarfor (2007) noted that values can be promoted by inculcating values early in life (through early childhood education) and instructing parents to screen the type of movies watched by their children.


Today, in Ondo State, there seems to be a serious concern about rising youth restiveness, crime rates, disobedience and other social vices among youths. As a result of these ugly trends in the behaviours observable among the school children in this present dispensation of ours, it behoves on the educators regardless of discipline or area of specialization to evolve ways of inculcating worthwhile values right from home.

Parental Involvement and Students’ Learning Skills

The general well-being of a child lies in the hands of the parents, on account of this, parents play vital roles in the child’s development. Hotz and Pantano (2015) advocated for early home parental involvement in children education and more importantly in early literary development which according to them believed to have catalyzed the achievement of the developed nations in all areas of learning. While reacting on how Brazil used free education to curtail family challenges, a Nigerian official comments thus “If we want a change in the future of family in this country (Nigeria) there is need to change our attitude to education”. He then stressed further that “without skills acquisition there cannot be real eradication of family problems. Early Childhood Education as one of such disciplines lays emphasis on enlightenment”. This will help Nigeria teachers and parents to be involved in teaching and learning at all levels of schools from primary to tertiary institutions.

Additionally, Ramirez, Lytle and Kuhd (2020) in their studies reported that, school children show more interest in their school work and consequently record higher achievements when motivated by their parents. Hence, parents or families involvement in the education progress and overall performance of children were beneficial to the learners, teachers, schools and the entire society. Ramirez, Lytle and Kuhd affirmed that children show greater probability of success in school assignment when their parents actively involved and interested in their school work. however, Ireogbu and Igweike (2020) in their study revealed that Nigerian parents are not sharing sufficient interest in promoting a high degree of parental participation when it comes to daily school work of their children and as such detrimental in learners’ achievement.

Also, research has indicated that most students’ achievement is not limited to parental or social status alone, but the level to which parents are able to create home enablement cum environment that encourages learning and future careers of their children’s education at the school and in the community. Farouq, Chaudry, Shafiq and Berhanu (2011) in their study reports that students whose parents are educated soar higher in standardized tests than those whose parents are not educated at secondary school level in a metropolitan city of Pakistan. These researchers affirmed that educated parents can better communicate with their children regarding school works and activities. In agreement with Farouq et al., (2011), Tarranga, Garcia and Reyes (2017) posits that positive parental involvement enhances learners performance in all ramifications and as such is what majority of learners (children) need in this contemporary situation.


Statement of the Problem

In the developed nations of the world, parental set-up cum involvement could be indicated as an important factor in the learning skills development of the young learners. In developing countries (Nigeria in particular), parental set-up and involvement in learners skills development has been affected by child abuse, divorce, poverty, illiteracy, social and economic practices which varies from what is obtainable in the developed nations. Based on this, this study investigated the level to which parental role and involvement affected the school children learning skills development and its implications for early childhood education.


Purpose of the Study

The study aimed at determining the impact of parents involvement and learning skills development of students in upper basic class one in Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria.


The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Determine the average of learning skills development of public students in upper basic class one

  2. Examine the effect of parental set-up and involvement on learning skills development among public upper basic class one students in this study.

  3. Determine the parental level of education affecting learning skills development among sampled students in upper basic class one in this study.


Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study.

  1. What is the average level of learning skills development among sampled students in upper basic class one?

  2. Does parental set-up and involvement have impact on overall learning skill development among sampled students in upper basic class one?

  3. Does parental level of education affect learning skills development among sampled students in upper basic class one?


Hypotheses

Two null hypotheses were stated and tested in this study. They are as follows:

Ho1: There is no significant effect of parental set-up and involvement in learning skills development of students in upper basic class one.

Ho2: There is no significant effect of parental level of education on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one.


Method of Study

Descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. This design involves obtaining information from a representative sample of a particular population of interest. The population for the study comprised all public junior secondary school students and their parents. The sample size for the study comprised 308 participants who agreed to participate in the study. This consisted 154 public junior secondary school students (57.1% males and 42.9% females with mean age of 7.79 and SD of 1.61) and 154 parents. Purposive sampling techniques were used for participants selection. Researchers self designed instruments were used to collect the data for this study. These were Learners’ Competence Skills Assessment Test (LCSAT) and Parental Set-up Questionnaire (PSQ). The Learners’ Competence Skills Assessment Test (LCSAT) had four sections. Section “A” addressed demographic information of the students, while sections B through D contained 30 objective items each with four options, drawn from reading skills, current affairs and social related issues.


The Parental Set-up Questionnaire (PSQ) has two sections. Section “A” contains items that addressed demographic information of the parents while section “B” contains 20 items designed to elicit parents’ behaviour at home as regard their personal efforts towards overall development of their children. Items on PSQ were generated from extensive review of studies on parental involvement. PSQ had a five-point Likert Scale format ranging from “Never” to “Very often”. The minimum and maximum scores obtained from the 20 items on PSQ are 0 and 60 respectively. Scores of 0-20 were rated as low level of involvement, 21-40 as moderate level while scores of 41 through 60 were adjudged as high level of involvement.


Items on LCSAT and PSQ were validated by expert in Test and Measurement. A test-retest approach was used to determine the reliability of items on LCSAT. The test was administered on 20 public students in upper basic class one twice with interval of two weeks. The two sets of scores obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The reliability coefficient obtained was 0.72. For the PSQ, this instrument was administered once to 20 parents of selected students that were used to validate LCSAT. Internal consistency approach based on Cronbach’s Alpha was adopted and the reliability coefficient found was 0.84. The two research instruments were found reliable enough given their respective reliability indices. The data obtained were analyzed using percentages, mean and One-way Analysis of Variance Statistical techniques.


Results: The results of data analysis are presented following the order of research questions.


Research Question 1: What is the average level of competence skills among sampled public junior secondary school students?


Table 1: Level of social competence skills of junior secondary school students in sample

Social competence skills level

Score Range %

Frequency (f)

Percentage %

Poor

0-49

64

41.6

Average

50-69

66

42.9

Good

70-100

24

15.6

Total


154

100.0

Mean = 51.54, SD = 15.96


Result in Table 1 indicates that the average reading skills, current affairs and other social-related issues skills development of secondary school students is 51.54. Additionally, 41.6% and 42.9% of the students exhibited poor reading, current affairs and social-related issues and average competence skills levels respectively while 15.6% had good development skills. The mean average competence skills score of the sampled students is 51.54 with a SD of 15.96. This suggests that skills development of the sampled students is at average level of development on the scale adopted for this study.

Research Questions 2 and 3 were captured by null hypotheses 1 and 2 respectively.


Null Hypothesis 1: This hypothesis states as follows: There is no significant effect of parental involvement on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one.


The result of data analysis is contained in Table 2.


Table 2: One-way Analysis of Variance. Test of Significance of Parental Involvement on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one.

Source of Variance

Sum of Square

df

Mean Square

F

P

Between Groups

4722.322

2

2361.161

10.494


Within Groups

33975.794

151

225.005


.000

Total

38698.116

153





Result in Table 2 shows that there was a statistically significant effect of parental level of involvement on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one in the sampled as determined by one-way ANOVA (F(2,151) = 10.494, p<.05). The result indicates that there was a significant effect of parental level of involvement on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one. The result of post-hoc test conducted to find out where the differences exist is presented in Table 3.


Table 3: Post-Hoc Test Multiple Comparisons of students’ learning skills development on the basis of Parental Level of Involvement

(I) Involvement

(J) involvement

Mean Difference (i-Std.Error J)

Sig

95% Confidence





Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Low

Moderate

-4.15972 3.06190

.365

-11.4074

3.0880


High

-17.23731* 3.96049

.000

-26.6120

-7.8626

Moderate

Low

4.15972 3.06190

.365

-3.0880

11.4074


High

-13.07759* 3.31630

.000

-20.9274

-5.2277

High

Low

17.23731* 3.96049

.000

7.8626

26.6120


Moderate

13.07759* 3.31630

.000

5.2277

20.9274

Low-Mean = 46.04, SD = 16.02; Moderate-Mean = 50.20, SD = 14.09; High-Mean = 63.28, SD = 17.81


Result in Table 3 shows learning skills development mean score of students whose parents had low level of involvement (M=46.04, SD = 16.02) was not significantly different from the scores of students whose parents were moderately involved (M = 50.20, SD = 14.09) but statistically significant different from students whose parents were highly involved (M = 63.28, SD = 17.81). There was equally a significant difference in the learning skills development mean score of students whose parents were moderately involved (M = 50.20, SD = 14.09) and those whose parents were highly involved (M = 63.28, SD = 17.81)


Ho2: There is no significant effect of parental level of education on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one. The result for data analysis for the evaluation of this hypothesis is contained in Table 4.


Table 4: One-way of Variance Test of Significance of Parental Level of Education on Learning Skills Development of sample.

Source of Variance

Sum of Square

df

Mean Square

F

P

Between Groups

2166.835

6

361.139

1.466


Within Groups

32755.438

133

246.281


.194

Total

34922.273

139





Result in Table 4 shows that there was no statistically significant impact of parental level of education on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one as determined by one-way ANOVA (F (6,139) = .194, p7.05). This result indicates that there was no significant impact of parental level of education on learning skills development of students in upper basic class one in this study. Hence parental level of education appeared to be of negligible effect in learners’ skills development.


Discussion of results of data analysis

The results of the study revealed that the students in upper basic class one possessed average level learning skills development on the scale of the instrument used for the study. The level is adjudged as not encouraging and as such not good enough. The actual reason for this rating is because less than 16% of the sample demonstrated evidence of good level of learning skills development. Additionally, it was observed that over 84 percent of the respondents exhibited learning skills between average and poor level. Going by this, parents need to intensify their effort and ensure that more students achieve higher levels of learning skills development at the upper basic class school level.

Findings of the study shows that parental involvement enhances students learning skills development. Children/students whose parents were highly involved in the learning skills development exhibited higher learning skills achievement than either those whose parents showed moderate or low involvement. This result tends to agree with the findings of Farouq, Chaudry, Shafiq and Berhanu (2011) in their study reported that students whose parents are educated soar higher in tests than those whose parents are not educated. These researchers, maintained that educated parents can better communicate with their wards regarding school works and activities. Additionally, Tarranga, Garica and Reyes (2017) affirmed that positive parental involvement enhances learners’ performance in all aspects of life endeavours. Hence, what majority learners (school children especially) need in this contemporary world is parents involvement so as to improve their learning skills development.

Another finding in this study revealed that parental level of education did not affect school children learning skills development as such. This may attribute to the fact that majority of the parents do employ the services of teachers to teach extra lessons to their wards at home or coaching centres. This, however, contradicts the findings of Iroegbu and Ifedayo (2020), Ramirez, Lytle and Kuhl (2020). The impression that parental education would have great influence on learners’ acquisition skills development. The finding of this study indicated that majority of the parents in leave the learning skills development of their wards to the school teachers. It is clear cut in this study that educated parents had not used their education to influence their children learning skills development, probably as a result of misplace of priority.

Recommendations: Based on the results of this study, the following recommendations are made:

There should be synergy/cooperation between the teachers and parents in developing learning skills in the life of the learners regardless of their ages and levels. Also, parents should not abandon their home responsibilities to school teachers alone as their wards spend more time at home with them than the time they spend with the school teachers.

School teachers should endeavour to give assignment to students which will engage them to demonstrate or showcase their level of learning skills which will enable the parents’ to discover their wards weakness and give feedback to the school teachers for improvement where necessary.

Additionally, Nigerian government should promote and encourage adult literacy classes. This will give room for parents who fall-out-of the school system at their tender age to fall-in. This will not only allow such parents to enjoy all round education; but enable them to value education of their wards vis-à-vis learning skills development.


Conclusion

This research has shown that learners in the upper basic classes need parents and teachers assistance in order to enhance their learning skills development in schools. The parents equally should provide enabling environment and get actively involved in developing learning skills of their children at levels of education.


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