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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Education and Literature | Volume:3 Issue:4 | July 1, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjel.2022.v03i04.001       Download PDF       HTML       XML

The Effect of Educational Units in the Style of Appointments in the Performance of Some Basic Volleyball Skills and Retention for Students


Abdul Hussein Mohsen Abdul

Ministry of Education - General Directorate of Education Dhi Qar

*Corresponding Author

Abdul Hussein Mohsen Abdul


Article History

Received: 19.06.2022

Accepted: 25.06.2022

Published: 01.07.2022


Abstract: The research aims to identify the effect of the educational units in the manner of appointments in the performance of some basic skills of volleyball and their retention for students. Directly on the recitation by the teacher and receiving by the student, hence the importance of the research in helping physical education teachers to use the appointments method that helps in improving the basic skills of volleyball among students. The second grade of the academic year (2020-2021) in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, which numbered (130) students. As for the research sample, by simple random method, it amounted to (40) with (20) students per group, where some students were excluded for various reasons, and they were Conducting homogeneity and equivalence for the two groups in the pre-test, then applying the main experiment, and then the post-test was conducted, and a set of statistical methods were used to reach the data. The results of the research were presented and discussed, then the results were presented and discussed.


Keywords: Educational Units, Volleyball Skills.


1-1 Introduction and importance of research:

The teaching process requires teachers to be knowledgeable and informed in choosing the best methods of teaching to facilitate learning and to save effort and time so that the teacher does not keep following the same method with the students, because there is no single method of the methods that can be the optimal method in the full development of the learner, so the teacher The good and the glory is the one who can constantly introduce new and knows a lot about each method, its objectives and benefits and its suitability with students, which makes the learner’s attitude positive, and modern societies pay great attention to scientific progress and that education is an important process for transferring information and experiences from one generation to another, and education It can only be transferred by different means and methods.


The method of appointments is one of the modern and effective methods in the educational and educational process, and the purpose of using this type of learning is to help students acquire skills and knowledge as well as develop modern learning methods, as this method gives a role to the student by making him more active and positive, because this method of learning It gives a basic idea to the student that the learner's previous knowledge is a prerequisite for building new learning, so the method of assignments is concerned with the existing cognitive structures about the students.


Volleyball is one of the games that is characterized by its popularity and ease of practice by different age groups, in addition to the technical and tactical development of its various skills, including the skills of crushing and blocking, the subject of the research. It takes precedence in scoring points and making progress, so it is considered one of the crucial skills in volleyball.


The importance of the research lies in the fact that the use of educational units in the manner of appointments, which provides appropriate learning opportunities through the optimal investment of effort and time for the purpose of achieving better learning and the performance of some basic skills in volleyball.


1-2 research problem:

Through the researcher’s experience in teaching, he noticed that the methods and methods of learning used for skills in volleyball often depend on the traditional method (the command method). Choosing the method of appointments achieves the required results and ensures positive learning of skills that are commensurate with the age level of the students. This is what prompted the researcher to use the method of appointments in teaching volleyball skills, and that this method, as confirmed by many sources, works to develop the mental and motor ability of the learners, which makes them In a good psychological condition, which in turn is reflected in the level of performance, and to employ the research results in the service of the educational and teaching process in this field.


1-3 Research Objectives:

The research aims to.

  • Recognizing the effect of educational units in the style of appointments in performing some basic volleyball skills and keeping them for students.

  • Recognizing the priority of learning among the educational units by the method of appointment and the method used by the teacher in performing some basic volleyball skills and keeping them for students.


1-4 Research hypotheses:

The researcher assumes that

  • Educational units in the manner of appointments have a positive effect on the performance of some basic volleyball skills and their retention for students.

  • Educational units in the manner of appointments give preference in performing some basic skills of volleyball and keeping them for students.


1-5 Research Areas:

  • The human domain: second-grade students in Dhi Qar - College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.

  • Time range: for the period from 1/12/2020 to 4/2/2021.

  • The spatial domain: the indoor hall and the outdoor volleyball court in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences - Dhi Qar.


2- Research methodology and field procedures:

2-1 Research Methodology:

The researcher used the experimental method, in the manner of two equal groups, due to its relevance to the nature of this research.


2-2 Research community and sample:

The researcher identified the research community, who are second-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences - University of Dhi Qar for the academic year (2020-2021), numbering (130) students. students and they were distributed into two groups (control and experimental), where the number of one group reached (20) students, after removing the failing students, club players, teachers and students who were absent from the educational units before starting the educational curriculum. The experimental group used the generative learning model, while the control group used the commanding method followed by the teacher.


Before starting work, homogeneity was conducted for the experimental and control groups in the variables (height, weight, age), as shown in Table No. (1), and parity was conducted between the two groups in (the skills under study) as shown in Table No. (2).

Table No. (1( It shows the homogeneity of the two groups in the variables (height, weight, age)

Variables


measuring unit


homogeneity

torsion modulus

The result

control

experimental

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

experimental

control

height

cm

177.16

7.869

179.25

6.560

-0,781

0,521

equinoctial

weight

kg

68.23

5.856

69.36

5.740

0,900

0,984

equinoctial

the age

Month

232.8

11.232

234.74

13.266

0,823

0,785

equinoctial

Table No. (2(

the exams


equivalence

torsion modulus

The result

control

experimental

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

control

experimental

smash hit skill

3.815

0.554

3.985

0.514

0,36 -

0,73-

equinoctial

wall skill

4.6

1.046

4.35

0.813

0,62

0,11-

equinoctial


2-3 Means, devices and tools used in the research:

  • Arabic and foreign sources and references

  • Tests and measurements used in research

  • personal interviews

  • Observation

  • Test evaluation form.

  • Camera, computer and discs

  • Legal volleyballs

  • 3 whistles and 3 seating benches

  • Metal tape measure and colored tape


2-4 Tests used in the research

2-4-1 The technical performance evaluation test for the skill of crushing beating (Nahida, 2002, 56).

  1. The objective of the test: to evaluate the technical performance of the skill of crushing beating according to the apparent construction of the skill and its three sections (preparatory, main, and final).

Tools used: a legal volleyball court, (3) legal volleyballs, and a video camera (SONY). As illustrated in Figure (6).

  1. Performance specifications: the tested student performs the crushing attack from center (4), as the teacher prepares the ball for him from center (3), and the test student performs the skill of crushing, trying to “drop the ball into the opposite court.”

Performance conditions: Each student has (3) consecutive attempts.

  1. The student gets (zero) in the event that the ball does not cross to the opposite court, as well as in the event that the crushing strike is performed in a manner other than the previously agreed upon method.


Registration: The three attempts of each laboratory student are photographed and then presented to three assessors with expertise and specialization for the purpose of evaluating them. And (2) a score for the final section - note that the total score for each attempt is (10) degrees - after which the best score for each assessment is selected, and by extracting the average for the best three degrees, the final score for each laboratory student is calculated.


2-4-2 Evaluation of the technical performance test for the skill of the wall of the wall (Ali Mustafa Taha, 1999).

  1. The objective of the test: to evaluate the technical performance of the skill of the blocking wall according to the apparent construction of the skill and its three sections (preparatory, main, final).

Tools used: a legal volleyball court, (3) legal volleyballs, a video camera (SONY), and (3) seats.


Performance specifications: The three seats are placed in positions (2, 3, 4) in a row and at a distance of (50 cm) from the net, as an assistant stands on each seat holding the ball with both hands above the level of the net, approximately 30 cm high.

The side distance between the three seats is equal and is (2.25 m).

  1. The test student stands in position (3), and when the start signal is given, he begins to move towards center (4) to perform the skill, by touching the ball over the net with both hands, then returning to center (3) and from there to center (2) to perform the same skill, respectively.

Performance conditions: Each student is given three (3) consecutive attempts.


Registration: The three attempts of each laboratory student are photographed and then presented to three assessors with expertise and competence for the purpose of evaluating them. And (3) degrees for the final section - note that the total score for each attempt is (10) degrees - after which the best score for each assessment is selected, and by extracting the average for the best three degrees, the final score is calculated for each laboratory student.


2-5 The exploratory experience:

The researcher conducted an exploratory experiment on (2/12/2019) on a sample of (8) chosen randomly from the research community outside the research sample. There is no ambiguity or question about the test.

The validity of the content was used by presenting the tests and the scale to experts in the field of volleyball, tests, measurements, teaching methods and psychology, if the tests that had an importance of 80% or more were chosen, which indicates the validity of the tests. On the sample of the exploratory experiment, on (4/12/2020) and the test was repeated after ten days from the date of the first test, provided that the two tests were conducted under the same conditions and after processing the results statistically by finding the Pearson correlation coefficient to find out the stability, the value was (0.84 - 0.88), which indicates a good stability of the test.

2-6The main experience:

2-6-1Pretest:

The researcher conducted the pre-skill test on 12/15/2020 and at 9:00 am, in the volleyball court of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.

2-6-2The educational program:

The start of the educational program for the control and experimental groups through the subject teacher, and the implementation of the educational program took (14) educational units at two units per week, as the implementation of the main experimental began on (16/12/2020) until (2/2/2021) and that the unit time Educational (90), the control group works with the curriculum prepared by the teacher, and the experimental group works with the curriculum prepared by the researcher using the appointments method according to the following stages:

  • The students of the experimental group bring pictures and scientific information about the skills studied in the first lesson for a period of (10) minutes.

  • The teacher explains the skill and presents it through the materials that have been brought, after which the student performs the skill in continuous repetition, and then each student or in the form of groups explains the skill through what they have presented.

  • Assigning the students a brief explanation for each of the two students, not exceeding five lines, and performing the skill individually with no less than (10) repetitions and for (20) minutes.

2-6-3 Post-test:

Post-tests of skills were conducted for the research sample for the control and experimental groups on Tuesday2/2/2021 on the stadium of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for volleyball, and the researcher was keen to establish the same conditions that were used in the pre-test in terms of time, place, tools used, method of implementation and the assistant work team.


2-7 retention test

The retention test is a measure of the extent of memory retention or the extent of its loss, and it is measured through a second post-test called the retention test, after leaving a period of several days or weeks between the post test for acquiring the original learning, and this period is called the retention period, provided that the learner does not engage in any motor activity from Those skills he learned and the purpose of this period is to assess learning.


The researcher conducted a retention test on a date after (21) from the date of conducting the post test in order to measure the percentage of retention by re-testing the skill of some basic skills in volleyball, as this test measures the extent of retention through the difference in results and includes the amount of loss or forgetfulness that occurred in the retention period.


2-8 Statistical means:

The researcher used the spss statistical

-3 Presentation, analysis and discussion of the results:

To reach the objectives of the research and verify the validity of its hypotheses, the researcher presented the results of the research in the form of tables, then analyzed and discussed these results to know the reality of the differences and their statistical significance according to the exact scientific perspective, as follows:


3-1 Presentation, analysis and discussion of the results of the pre and post tests of the skills specified in the research for the control and experimental groups:


Table (3( It shows the statistical treatments of the pre and post tests of the skills specified in the research for the control and experimental groups.

processors

stats

the test

pre test


post test

)T)* computed value

Indication level

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

smash hit skill

control

4.815

0.554

6.475

0.785

12.260

insignificant

experimental

4.965

0.514

7.435

0.436

26.440

moral

wall skill

control

4.633

1.046

6.8

1.239

7.443

moral

experimental

4.35

0.813

8.4

0.882

18.136

moral

Tabular (T) value (2.09) under the significance level (0.05) and with a degree of freedom (19(.


Table (3) shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, the calculated (t) value and the level of significance for the control and experimental groups in the pre and post tests, where we find that the arithmetic mean of the skill of crushing multiplication in the pre-test for the control group was a value of (4.815) with a standard deviation of (0.554), while we find The arithmetic mean in the post-test was with a value of (6.475) and a standard deviation of (0.785), and when calculating the value of (t), we find it with a value of (12.260), which is less than the tabular score of (2.09) at the degree of freedom (19) and below the level of significance (0.05), As for the experimental group, its arithmetic mean for the skill of crushing multiplication in the pre-test was with a value of (3.985) and a standard deviation of (0.514), while we find that the arithmetic mean in the remote test was with a value of (7.435) and with a standard deviation of (0.436), and when calculating the value of (T) we find it with a value (26.440), which is higher than the tabular degree of (2.09) at the degree of freedom (19) and below the level of significance (0.05(.


As for the skill of the wall, we find that the arithmetic mean in the pre-test for the control group was with a value of (4.6) and a standard deviation of (1.046), while we find that the arithmetic mean in the remote test was with a value of (6.8) and with a standard deviation of (1.239), and when calculating the value of (T) We find it with a value of (7.443), which is higher than the tabular score of (2.09) at the degree of freedom (19) and below the level of significance (0.05). The arithmetic mean in the post-test was with a value of (8.4) and a standard deviation of (0.882), and when extracting the calculated (t) value, we find it with a value of (18.136), which is higher than the tabular score of (2.09) at the degree of freedom (19) and below the level of significance (0.05).

By presenting and analyzing the results of the tribal and remote tests to test my skills (the stun to the crush and the wall of the wall) in volleyball under discussion in Table (3) and for the two groups, it became clear that there are significant differences between the tribal and remote tests and in favor of the post tests for the two groups.

The researcher sees the differences in the tribal and remote tests, and in favor of the post-test of the control group, to the effectiveness of the commanding method followed by the teacher in the students’ learning of the theoretic skill of the crushing skill and the skill of the blocking wall, as well as his success in preparing exercises and applying them in the applied part. This helped to learn and master motor skills after The teacher explained that skill and performed it in the required manner in front of the students, and this agrees with (Abbas, Abdul Karim: 1991, p. 77) (The teacher presents the movement or skill himself and gives instructions for the movement or skill and then defines the model. The learner’s duty is to follow those orders or decisions and do what is required of him)

The researcher also sees the differences in the pre and post tests and in favor of the post test of the experimental group to the generational learning model, which contributed to the generation of new ideas and helps link these ideas with each other and increases the interaction between the student and the teacher and between the students themselves and generate more perfect knowledge, and this is consistent with griff (2000, 66), "The generative learning model uses methods that allow students to actively participate in the learning process and generate knowledge by forming mental connections between concepts. When students analyze new material, they integrate new ideas with old knowledge, and when this information matches, new mental relationships and structures are built. for them".


3-2 Presentation, analysis and discussion of the results of the post-tests of the skills identified in the research for the experimental and control groups:


Table (4) It shows the statistical treatments of the post-tests of the specific skills in the research for the experimental and control groups

processors

stats

the test

The control group


the experimental group

(T)* computed value

Indication level

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

arithmetic mean

standard deviation

smash hit skill

6.475

0.786

7.435

0.437

4.778

moral

wall skill

6.88

1.239

8.4

0.884

4.702

moral

* Tabular (T) value (2.02) under the significance level (0.05) and with a degree of freedom (38).


Table (4) shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, the calculated (t) value and the level of significance for the control and experimental groups in the two post tests. ) with a standard deviation of (0.437) and the (t) calculated for the two groups in the post test of the skill of crushing striking was (4.778), which is greater than the tabular (t) value of (02, 2) under the significance level (0.05) and with a degree of freedom (38).


As for the skill of the wall skill, we find that the arithmetic mean of the control group is (6.88) with a standard deviation (1.239), while for the experimental group, we find that the arithmetic mean is (8.4) with a standard deviation of (0.884) and the value of (T) calculated for the two groups in the post test of the skill of the wall of the block was (4.702). ), which is greater than the tabular value (T) of (02, 2) and below the degree of freedom (38) and with a significance level of (0,05).


The researcher believes that the reason for the superiority of the experimental group over the control group in the post-tests is due to the effect of the used educational curriculum (the method of appointments), which depicts a state of development in the educational unit that differs from the educational unit in which the method used by the teacher is used, and that the experimental group applied and focused On the important aspects of the educational process by providing the student with basic cognitive aspects to refer to when practicing motor skills, and the use of this method in the learning process led to the acquisition of knowledge in a successful way that allows the student to remember, understand and retrieve it in a better way, and this gave a good environment for the learning process for students, especially During discussion and dialogue, the student is considered an active learner and not a recipient of information only, and this is consistent with (Aziz, 2010, 142) “The method of appointments works to involve the learner positively during the course of the lesson through the use of his maximum abilities and cognitive capabilities.”


3-3


Presenting, analyzing and discussing the results of the skill tests for retention:


Table (5) It shows the arithmetic mean values of the post-tests and the percentage of retention and forgetting for the two groups

sums

skills

dimensional arithmetic mean

Relative retention

Experimental

smash hit skill

7.435

7,36

wall skill

8.4

7,09

sums

smash hit skill

6.475

4,59

wall skill

6.88

3,68


Table (5) shows that the experimental group achieved retention rates of (7.09-7.36), respectively, in each of the research skills (the skill of crushing stun, the skill of blocking the wall), while the control group applied the curriculum prepared by the teacher. It achieved retention rates (4.59-3.68), respectively, in each of the research skills (the skill of crushing sting, skill of blocking the wall.

The researcher believes that there must be a discrepancy in learning and retention, because the two research groups used different methods, and the reason for the presence of moral differences in the retention test in learning some types of volleyball skills for the control and experimental groups, in favor of the experimental group, to the appointments method is one of the modern methods Which is a reaction to the traditional methods of learning, including the imperative method, which keeps pace with recent developments in education and takes into account individual differences and uses feedback that makes the learner a vital and effective element and gives students a greater opportunity to learn to reach mastery of the skill, as the method and method of education have a great impact in retaining what Learn it, and this is indicated by (Rasheed, 2006, p. 74) “that the specificity of the method in which the skill was acquired will determine the level of retention of that skill, as studies have shown that what we remember depends on the method of acquiring knowledge. He will remember it from them.” Failure to perform sufficient repetitions as required for the instructional exercises for teaching skills in the imperative style leads to less practice period and slower learning Contrary to the method of appointments, in which the number of repetitions and practice increases, especially for students of weak level to reach the level of their colleagues, and accordingly, the method of storing information in memory and retrieval well depends on many factors, including repetition and practice, and this is consistent with (Al-Dammad, 2000, p. 160) “The Skills that we repeat and practice frequently are easier to recall and remember than skills that we practice intermittently.


4- Conclusions and recommendations:

4.1 Conclusions:

The researcher reached the following conclusions:-

  • Learning through assignments is more effective than the imperative method used by the teacher in learning the skills under study.

  • The educational units in the manner of appointments have a positive effect on learning some volleyball skills for second-grade students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.

  • The educational units by the method of appointments had a positive impact in developing the motor satisfaction of the second grade students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.


4-2 Recommendations:

Based on the research results, the researcher recommends:

  • Emphasis on the application of educational units in the manner of appointments in teaching volleyball skills to second-grade students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.

  • It is preferable to conduct similar studies and for different samples in the manner of appointments in learning the motor skills of volleyball.

  • The necessity of using the appointments method to learn skills in different activities.

  • Paying attention to educational methods and models that work to increase students' motor satisfaction and develop it because of its impact on raising the level of technical performance for the better.


The references

  1. Ibrahim, M. A. (2010). Constructive learning and cognitive and kinetic achievement in football, Erbil, Manar Press, 2010, p. 142.

  2. Ahmed, Al-Samarrai A., & Mahmoud, A.K. (1991). Teaching Competencies in the Methods of Teaching Physical Education, University of Baghdad: Dar Al-Hekma Press, 1991.

  3. Taha, A.M. (1999). Volleyball (history, education, training, analysis, law) i 1: (Cairo, Arab Thought House, 1999 AD.

  4. Laila El-Sayed Farhat. (2007). Measurement and Testing in Physical Education, 4th Edition, Al-Kitab Center for Publishing, Cairo, 2007, p. 169.

  5. Magda Ibrahim Ali. (1995). The effect of using two individual learning methods in students’ acquisition and retention of physical information, unpublished doctoral thesis, College of Education Ibn Al-Haytham, University of Baghdad, 1995, p. 19.

  6. Muhammad Hassan Allawi. (1998).Encyclopedia of Psychological Tests for Athletes, 1st Edition, Cairo, Book Center for Publishing, 1998, p. 174.

  7. Nahida Abdel Zaid. (2002). The effect of interference in training methods on learning the skills of smashing serve and hitting volleyball, unpublished doctoral thesis: (University of Baghdad, College of Physical Education, 2002 AD)

  8. Nizar Taleb. (2011). A quality lecture entitled Motivation, discussion room, College of Physical Education, University of Al-Qadisiyah, 12/1/2011 AD

  9. Griff, steven j.mc (2000). using writte summaries as a generative learning strategy to increase comprehension of science text. College of Education, the pennsyivania state university, 66, 2000.

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