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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Economics and Business Management | Volume 3 Issue 4 | Aug. 10, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjebm.2022.v03i04.012       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Analysis of Personality and Career Development to Job Performance through Job Satisfaction of Hotel Employees in Jember


Elzahra Firdausi, Raden Andi Sularso and Sumani

Master of Management Study Program, Faculty of Economics and Business University of Jember, Indonesia Kalimantan Street No. 37, Earth Campus Tegal boto, Jember, East Java 68121, Indonesia


*Corresponding Author

Elzahra Firdausi


Article History

Received: 20.07.2022

Accepted: 30.07.2022

Published: 10.08.2022


Abstract: This study aims to determine and analyze the influence of personality and career development on performance through job satisfaction of hotel employees in Jember. This research is an explanatory research using a questionnaire as a data collection method. The population in this study were hotel employees in Jember totaling 436 people, the research sample obtained using probability random sampling technique amounted to 209 people. The data analysis method used in this research is path analysis. The results showed that personality had an effect on performance, career development had a significant effect on performance, personality had a significant effect on job satisfaction, career development had an effect on job satisfaction, job satisfaction had an effect on performance.


Keywords: personality, career development, job performance, job satisfaction.


INTRODUCTION

Covid-19 has been endemic in several countries since the end of 2019. Its rapid and massive spread globally has prevented the world from preparing anything, resulting in serious losses. The high number of cases of the spread of Covid-19 has made the Indonesian government, including the Indonesian government, take decisive steps by issuing a PSBB (Large-Scale Social Restriction) policy, so that the impact arising from the spread of the Covid-19 virus is not only felt by those who work as a paramedic team, but almost all sectors. especially the economic sector. Indonesia experienced an economic loss of 5.23 percent in the second quarter of 2020 (https://www.liputan6.com).One that also feels the impact of the PSBB is the tourism sector, especially in the hotel industry. Hospitality is one of the sectors of the business industry that has grown rapidly over the past decade, and Jember is no exception. In the last five years in Jember, many hotels with the same level of stars have been built at economical and competitive prices. However, with the enactment of the PSBB, many hotels were eventually forced to close because they were unable to meet operational costs due to the absence of guests due to the pandemic. This also has an impact on hotel employees, especially in Jember. During the pandemic, the Jember Regency Manpower Service noted that almost 50% of hotel employees were laid off and the rest were laid off.


According to the American Hotel and Motel Association (AHMA) in (Suwithi, N. W., & Boham, C. E. 2008) a hotel is a commercially managed building by providing lodging facilities for the public with the following service facilities: food and drink service, room service, luggage service, washing clothes and can use the facilities/furniture and enjoy the decorations in it. The hospitality industry is a service industry that is labor-intensive and people-based industry, which means that it involves a lot of workers who are supposed to be competent and professional, and make employees the main asset (Suwithi, N. W., & Boham, C. E. 2008). The main key to good service quality lies in the quality of human resources (HR) owned by the company. Good service quality refers to how the hotel employees perform themselves. Employees who have good performance will always work well by providing the best service to consumers.


Good employee performance will bring the organization towards a good direction too, which means having employees with good performance will have a positive impact on the organization, as well as for the employees themselves. Employees who have good performance will of course get certain rewards from the organization for their achievements. Broadly speaking, there are two factors that influence employee performance, namely extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors are factors that come from outside the individual, while intrinsic factors are factors that come from within the individual, which includes abilities, expertise, demographics, perceptions, and personality.


Personality is a dynamic and organized characteristic of an individual that influences his cognition, motivation, and behavior. Personality is unique and consistent so that it can be used to distinguish one individual from another (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009). One approach that is often used in assessing personality is the trait approach.


Referring to previous studies, several studies have shown that personality has an effect on employee performance, as in the research conducted by (Soepono. & Srimulyani. 2015; Fiernaningsih. 2017). However, (Sinuhaji. 2014) mentions in his research that personality has no effect on employee performance. Understanding the personality of the individual is necessary to understand that each individual has different characteristics in various aspects, one of which is individual characteristics related to his work. In working, employees certainly have their own hopes for their careers in the future. Holland examines how an individual is attracted to a career that matches his personality, this research is manifested in an inventory test of a person's talents and interests.


As a company engaged in the service sector, hotel employees are required to always provide excellent service to all customers. But in reality not all employees have the ability to serve excellently, this can be caused by the personality possessed by the employees. Providing excellent service is one of the job descriptions for hotel employees, where this will affect the career development of employees. Job performance and loyalty to the organization are two of the nine factors in career development mentioned by (Rivai, V., & Sagala, E. J. 2009). Work performance and loyalty to the organization can be achieved if employees feel satisfied in doing their jobs. One of the factors in job satisfaction according to (As’ad, M. 2003) is a psychological factor related to employee psychology which includes interest, peace of mind, attitudes towards work, work feelings. This can be reflected in a person's personality.


(Dewi & Utama 2016) mention in their research that career development has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. (Baroroh, A. 2016) found that career development has a positive effect on job satisfaction, and job satisfaction mediates the effect of career development and motivation on performance. However, there are studies that show results that are contrary to previous research, namely in research conducted by (Khotimah, K. 2014) which shows that there is an insignificant effect between career development on job satisfaction. Furthermore, the research conducted by (Alif, A. 2015) also showed similar results, namely career development had no positive and significant effect on job satisfaction.


Job satisfaction is an emotional state which is a reflection of feelings and is closely related to the attitudes of the employees themselves, work situations, and cooperation between leaders and employees (Handoko, T. H. 2001). Research conducted by (Rosita, T., & Yuniati, T. 2016) shows the results that job satisfaction has a positive and significant influence on employee performance. Furthermore, the results of research conducted by (Muhajir. 2019) stated that career development affects job satisfaction, and job satisfaction affects employee performance.


THEORY REVIEW:

  • Personality:

(Alwisol. 2016) explains that personality is part of the soul that builds human existence into a single unit, not fragmented in functions. Understanding personality means understanding self, self, me, therefore understanding personality is understanding human beings as a whole. (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009) defines personality as a dynamic and organized characteristic of an individual that affects his cognition, motivation, and behavior. Personality is unique and consistent so that it can be used to distinguish one individual from another. This uniqueness makes personality a variable used to describe an individual who is different from other individuals. Based on some of the opinions above, personality is adynamic characteristics in humans that cannot be broken down, so that they become a picture of the psychological quality of humans who have distinctive and consistent patterns, feelings and behaviors that exist within them.


McCrae & Costa in (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009) describe the personality structure in the five-factor model or what is called Big Five Personality as follows:

  • Extraversion which is often referred to as surgency and agreeableness summarizes interpersonal traits which include those traits that are described by what people do to others. Agreeableness traits include trust, honesty, altruistic, obedient to the rules, humble and easy to change their stance so that people who score high on this dimension will tend to be friendly, cooperative, trustworthy and warm. Meanwhile, extraversion includes being sociable, assertive, and having positive emotions, so people with high scores on this dimension will tend to be energetic, enthusiastic, dominant, friendly and enthusiastic. (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009).

  • Neuroticism also called emotional instability, in contrast to emotional stability which includes negative feelings, people who are high in this dimension will tend to experience anxiety, sadness, feelings of vulnerability, and nervous tension coupled with anxiety, hostility, depression, impulsivity, feeling insecure. , sensitive and easily tensed (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009).

  • Openness also called culture or intellect, generally people who have high scores on this dimension are people whose experience describes the breadth of interest, depth and complexity of individual mentality and experiential life, besides that they also like to accept new things and try new things so they will tend to be imaginative, always eager to learn. know, creative fun and artistic (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009).

  • Conscientiousness also called lack of impulsivity describes task and goal-oriented behavior and socially required impulse control, its characteristics include competent, obedient to obligations, full of plans and discipline so that people who score high on this dimension generally tend to be careful, reliable, organized and responsible (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009).

  • Agreeableness refers to a person's tendency to submit to others. Individuals who are able to agree will value harmony far more than their words or ways. This individual is classified as a cooperative person and trusts others. whereas individuals who have low scores in the ability to agree will focus more on their personal needs than on the needs of others (Feist, J., & Feist, G. 2009).


  • Career Development:

(Anoraga, P. 2009), a career in a narrow sense, namely as an effort to earn a living, develop a profession, and improve one's position, while a career in a broad sense is a step forward throughout life or carve out one's life. According to (Handoko, T. H. 2001) career is all job positions that are handled or held during one's working life. Meanwhile, according to (Gibson, I., & Donnelly. 1997) career is a series of attitudes and behaviors related to work experiences and activities during a person's life span and a series of continuous work activities. From these several career definitions, career is a series of activities carried out in the span of an individual's life in an effort to earn a living, develop a profession and improve position. (Rivai, V., & Sagala, E. J. 2009) explain the aspects contained in individual career development including:

  • Job Performance:

An individual’s career advancement depends on good and ethical work performance. By knowing the results of their performance, employees can measure their opportunities for career development. Career advancement generally lies in performance and achievement.

  • Exposure:

Without recognition by others, good employees will not get the opportunities they need to achieve their goals. Managers or superiors gain this recognition primarily through performance, and employee achievements, reports, written, oral presentations, committee work and hours spent.

  • Network:

Networking means gaining exposure outside the company. Includes personal and professional contacts. This network will be very beneficial for employees, especially in developing their careers.

  • Resignation:

Many career opportunities in a company provide opportunities for employee career development, this will reduce the rate of resignation to develop themselves in other companies (leveraging).

  • Organization Loyalty:

To overcome low employee loyalty, while reducing employee turnover rates, companies usually “buy” employee loyalty with high salaries and benefits, carry out effective HR practices such as planning and career development. While other companies limit mobility by entering into non-competitive contracts to prevent employees from working for competing companies, these contracts are usually valid for a period of one year.

  • Mentors and Sponsors:

The existence of mentors and sponsors will help employees in developing their careers. The supervisor will provide advice or suggestions to employees in an effort to develop their careers, mentors come from internal companies. A mentor is someone within the company who creates opportunities for career development.

  • Key Subordinates:

Subordinates can have special knowledge and skills so that superiors can learn from them, as well as help superiors carry out their duties. Key subordinates collect, interpret information, complement their superior’s skills and work cooperatively to develop their superior’s career. This is also beneficial for them, because it will make them climb the career ladder when their boss is promoted, as well as accept important assignments in an effort to develop their careers.

  • Growth Opportunities:

Employees should be given the opportunity to improve their abilities, for example through training, courses, and continuing their education. This will give employees the opportunity to grow and develop according to their career plans.

  • International Experience:

For people approaching operational or senior staff positions, international experience is an extremely important growth opportunity. Especially for domestic companies where high sales come from international operations, also for global companies.


  • Job Performance:

Performance is a real behavior displayed by everyone as work performance produced by employees in accordance with their role in the company (Rivai, V. 2004). Meanwhile, according to (Mangkunegara, A. P. 2004) performance or work performance is the result of work in quantity and quality achieved by an employee in carrying out his duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to him. (Simanjuntak, P. J. 2005) defines individual performance as the level of achievement or work of a person from the goals that must be achieved or tasks that must be carried out within a certain period of time.


(Bernardin, H. J. & Russel, J. E. A. 1993) suggest six primary criteria that can be used to measure employee performance as follows:

  • Quality that measures the extent to which the process or results of the implementation of a job achieve the expected goals.

  • Quantity that measures the amount resulting from the work that has been carried out, for example the number of units, the number of cycles of activities that have been carried out.

  • Timeliness measuring the extent to which an activity can be completed in accordance with the specified time or even completed faster than the specified time.

  • Cost effectiveness measures the extent to which the organization's resources (human, technology, financial) are maximized to achieve maximum profit or reduce losses from each unit of resource use.

  • Need for supervision measures the extent to which employees can carry out their task functions without requiring supervision from superiors or can be called employee independence at work.

  • Interpersonal impact measuring the extent to which an employee can maintain self-esteem, good name and communication and cooperation with colleagues, superiors and subordinates.


  • Job Satisfaction:

Locke defines job satisfaction as a cognitive, affective, and evaluative reaction or attitude and states that job satisfaction is a happy emotional state or positive emotion that comes from evaluating a person's work or work experience. Job satisfaction is the result of employees' perceptions of how well their work provides things that are considered important (Kaswan, M. M. 2012). (Robbins, S. 2007) states that job satisfaction is the general attitude of an individual towards his work which shows the difference between the number of awards received by workers and the amount they believe they should receive. Then (Gibson, I., & Donnelly. 1997) revealed that job satisfaction is a pleasant feeling that employees develop over time regarding the aspect of their work. Job satisfaction can come from various aspects of work such as wages, promotion opportunities, and coworkers. From some of these definitions, job satisfaction can be interpreted as a reflection of the feelings, thoughts and actions of an individual towards his work which can be influenced by several aspects such as salary/wages, promotion opportunities, co-workers, work environment and the relationship between leaders and employees.


Smith, Kendall & Hulin (Luthans, F. 2006) describe several dimensions of job satisfaction that can be used to reveal important characteristics about work, which people can respond to. These dimensions include:

  • Work itself, where each job requires a certain skill in accordance with their respective fields. The level of difficulty of a job as well as a person's feeling that his skills are needed in doing the job, will increase or decrease job satisfaction.

  • Supervision is one of the characteristics of a good boss is willing to respect the work of his subordinates. For subordinates, superiors can be considered as father/mother/friend figures as well as superiors.

  • Workers are factors related to the relationship between employees and their superiors and with other employees, both the same and different types of work.

  • Promotion is a factor related to the presence or absence of opportunities to obtain career advancement while working.

  • Pay is a factor in fulfilling the living needs of employees who are considered worthy or not.


  • Conceptual Framework:


Image is available at PDF file


Information:

  • The independent variable is the Personality (X1) and Career Development (X2).

  • The dependent variable is job performance (Y1).

  • The mediating variable (intervening) is job satisfaction (Y2).

: The direct effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

: The influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable through the mediating variable.


HYPOTHESES:

H1: Personality affects the performance of hotel employees in Jember.

H2: Career development affects the performance of hotel employees in Jember.

H3: Personality has an effect on job satisfaction for hotel employees in Jember.

H4: Career development has an effect on job satisfaction for hotel employees in Jember.

H5: Job satisfaction affects the performance of hotel employees in Jember.

H6: Personality affects performance through job satisfaction for hotel employees in Jember.

H7: Career development affects performance through job satisfaction for hotel employees in Jember.


METHOD:

This research is an explanatory research, namely research that looks at the causal relationship between research variables which then tests the hypotheses that have been formulated previously (Sugiyono, P. 2006). The population in this study were hotel employees with a minimum of three stars in Jember, amounting to 436 people. The sample in this study used probability sampling with a simple random sampling technique. The number of research samples was calculated using the Slovin formula. Based on this formula, the sample in this study was 209 employees.

This study uses quantitative data, where the data obtained is in the form of numbers which will then be processed by statistical calculation methods. The source of data used in this study is primary data, namely data sources that directly provide data to data collectors (Sugiyono, P. 2015), which are obtained from questionnaires that will be distributed to hotel employees in Jember.


The data analysis method in this study used validity and reliability test, the tests used to test the instrument. Furthermore, the path analysis test, t test and Sobel test were carried out. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 21 software. The mediation of hypothesis was tested using the Sobel test (Ghozali, I. 2016). Sobel test calculation is done using a website calculator.


RESULT:

  • Instrument Validity & Reliability:

Validity test in this study used the Pearson Validity correlation with the product moment technique with the basis of decision making, namely the data is said to be valid if rcount > rtable with the result that the value of rcount > rtable is more than 0.136, so it can be concluded that each statement item in the questionnaire can be proven valid.


Table 4.1: Reliability Test Results

Variable

Cronbach’s Alpha

Reliability Standart

Personality (X1)

0,810

0,60

Career Development (X2)

0,858

0,60

Job Satisfaction (Y2)

0,631

0,60

Job Performance (Y1)

0,717

0,60


Based on table 4.1, it can be seen that the variables of personality (X1), career development (X2), job satisfaction (Y2), and performance (Y1) are reliable because they have a Croanbach's Alpha value greater than 0.60.


  • Path Analysis:

Table 4.2: Pathway Analysis Results

Pathway

Β

tcount


ttable

Sig


α

X1 Y1

0,508

10,321

>

1,972

0,000

<

0,05

X2 Y1

0,503

10,217

>

1,972

0,000

<

0,05

X1 Y2

0,454

9,763

>

1,972

0,000

<

0,05

X2 Y2

0,458

9,888

>

1,972

0,000

<

0,05

Y1 Y2

0,257

4,808

>

1,972

0,000

<

0,05


The path analysis model in equation (1) is as follows:

Y2

=

0,508 X1 + 0,503 X2 + e

t

=

(10,321)*** (10,217)***

Y1

=

0,454 X1 + 0,458 X2 + 257 Y2 + e

t

=

(9,763)*** (9,888)*** (4,808)***


From equation (1) above, the path analysis can be calculated as shown in the following figure:


Image is available at PDF file


  • t-Test:

The t-test was carried out on the degrees of freedom (n-k) where n is the number of respondents and k is the number of variables, so the results are 209-4 = 205. Path analysis in this study is used to determine the influence of personality and career development as independent variables, job satisfaction as an intervening variable. and performance as the dependent variable. Based on the results of the path test obtained as follows:

  • First Hypothesis (H1)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 10.321 > 1.972, which means that personality has an effect on performance (H1 is accepted).

  • Second Hypothesis (H2)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 10.217 > 1.972, which means career development is significant to performance (H2 is accepted).

  • Third Hypothesis (H3)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 9.763 > 1.972, which means that personality has a significant effect on job satisfaction (H3 is accepted).

  • Fourth Hypothesis (H4)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 9.888 > 1.972, which means that career development has an effect on job satisfaction (H4 is accepted).

  • Fifth Hypothesis (H5)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 4.808 > 1.972, which means that job satisfaction has an effect on performance (H5 is accepted).

  • Sixth Hypothesis (H6)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 4.356 > 1.972, which means that personality affects performance through job satisfaction (H6 is accepted).

  • Seventh Hypothesis (H7)

The path analysis model shows that the value of tcount > ttable, which is 4.345 > 1.972, which means that career development affects performance through job satisfaction (H7 is accepted).


  • Sobel Test:

From the results of the calculation of equation I (X1 – Y2 – Y1) shows a p-value of 0.00 < 0.05, and is significant, so it can be concluded that job satisfaction is able to mediate the influence of personality on performance. Then from the results of the calculation of equation II (X2 – Y2 – Y1), the p-value is 0.00 < 0.05, and is significant. It can be concluded that job satisfaction is able to mediate the effect of career development on performance.


DISCUSSION:

Personality in this study was measured by the big five personality theory where the results showed that personality had a significant effect on performance. According to (Dewi. 2015) personality measured using the big five personality theory which consists of the dimensions of extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness has a positive and positive effect on employee performance. Personality with its five dimensions determines one's success in career success, good employee performance, achievement and positive behavior. An employee must also have the ability to understand all kinds of knowledge, and be interested in learning new things such as science. Research conducted by (Fiernaningsih. 2017), it shows the results where personality has an influence on employee performance variables at the Elresas Lamongan Hotel. Furthermore, research by (Soepono & Srimulyani. 2015) shows the results that the big five personalities significant positive effect on the performance of nurses.


One of the objectives of performance appraisal is for the purpose of developing its employees (Riani. 2013), where the purpose of this development is to improve employee performance. This is in line with the factors that influence career development according to Dubrin (Mangkunegara, A. P. 2004) where work performance is a factor that influences career development by the company in order to get employees with qualifications and abilities and experience that are in accordance with company needs. Therefore, companies must manage careers and be able to develop their employees well so that employee productivity is maintained and can push towards a better direction in order to avoid work frustration which can result in decreased performance of an employee. Career development has a positive effect on performance. Another similar research result was stated by (Dewi. & Utama. 2016) that career development has a positive and significant effect on employee performance.


According to (Sutrisno. 2017) "satisfaction refers to the general attitude of an individual towards his work". Job satisfaction is described as a positive feeling towards work, which is the result of an evaluation of each job characteristic. Someone who has a high level of job satisfaction has positive feelings towards his job, and vice versa someone who has a low level of job satisfaction has negative feelings towards his job (Robbins, S. 2007). One of the factors in job satisfaction according to (As'ad, M. 2003) is a psychological factor related to a person's psyche which includes interest, peace of mind, attitudes towards work, and feelings of work. It can reflect how a person's personality. (Robbins, S. 2007) states "personality is the whole in which an individual reacts and interacts with other people". Personality in this study uses the big five personality theory where the biggest contribution to the personality variable lies in the indicators of being honest with statement "I see myself as an individual who is caring and kind to everyone." This can indicate that being attentive and kind to anyone can produce a good personality. It can be concluded that if a person's personality is good, high job satisfaction will be obtained so that if the personality has a positive effect, every increase in personality will increase job satisfaction where if this is achieved, the employee's work results are as expected. In her research, (Iswati, S. 2008) got similar results where personality affects job satisfaction, but in her research, Iswati uses personality A and personality B.


Good career development will have an impact on increasing the ability and work performance of an employee which will result in good job satisfaction. Career development can also facilitate employees in making decisions in their work. Career development can also assist employees in analyzing their abilities and interests to make it easier to adjust human resource needs in line with company development. Employees also tend to be more accomplished if they feel comfortable and fit with their work, superiors, co-workers and the salary they receive. Employees will experience career development if they have the opportunity to grow in an organization, which is possible when they feel satisfied in their work. Research conducted by (Jufrizen. 2018) who got the result that career development has a positive and significant effect on employee job satisfaction.


Employees are satisfied when the work that has been achieved and the contribution made by the company for the work produced, then employee performance will also increase because employees are satisfied with their work. Employee job satisfaction is a favorable or unfavorable emotional state by which employees view their work, (Handoko, T. H. 2001). There are also factors that affect job satisfaction such as support from superiors, harmonious relationships with workers, opportunities to get promotions and the suitability of the amount of salary received and when all these things can be obtained by an employee, it is not impossible that an employee's job satisfaction will increase. If employees are satisfied with their work, then they will increase their productivity during work so that it will improve their performance. This is in line with the research conducted (Khotimah, K. 2014) states the results of the study is a significant and positive influence between job satisfaction on employee performance.


(As'ad, M. 2003) explains that psychological factors are one of the factors that influence job satisfaction, namely factors related to employee psychology which include interest, work peace, attitude towards work, work feelings. This can be reflected in a person's personality. Job satisfaction itself has a relationship with the performance of an employee, as in the results of research conducted by (Rosita, T., & Yuniati, T. 2016) state that Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. Personality indirectly influencespositive and significanton performance through job satisfaction of hotel employees in Jember.


The clarity of career development is very influential on employee job satisfaction, this can happen because the better the employee's career development, the higher the employee's job satisfaction with the company (Baroroh, A. 2016). If employees are satisfied with their work, then employees will easily achieve the desired career development, so that employee performance will also increase. Career development indirectly affectspositive and significanton performance through job satisfaction of hotel employees in Jember. Better career development will increase job satisfaction so that it can lead to increased performance. Conversely, if the personality decreases it will reduce the level of satisfaction which will have an impact on decreasing the performance of hotel employees in Jember.


CONCLUSION AND LIMITATIONS:

  • Conclusion:

Based on the results of the analysis and discussion that the researchers explained, it can be concluded as follows:

  • Personality affects the level of performance of hotel employees in Jember.

  • The higher the level of Career Development will affect the level of performance of hotel employees in Jember.

  • The higher the level of personality will affect the level of job satisfaction of hotel employees in Jember.

  • The higher the level of Career Development will affect the level of job satisfaction of hotel employees in Jember.

  • The higher the level of job satisfaction will affect the level of performance of hotel employees in Jember.

  • Personality affects the level of performance through job satisfaction of hotel employees in Jember.

  • Career development affects the level of performance through job satisfaction for hotel employees in Jember.


  • Limitations:

A limitation in this study is that data collection was carried out while the pandemic was still ongoing, so that respondents filled out online questionnaires, this made the data collection process not too optimal and took a long time to complete research needs. In addition, the researcher was not able to meet the respondent directly so that the researcher could not ensure that the respondent actually filled out the questionnaire in accordance with the actual situation felt.


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