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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Agriculture | Volume :3 Issue:2 | April 10, 2022
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DOI : 10.47310/Hja.2022.v03i02.004       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Nutritional Evaluation of Toasted Bambaranut Waste with Starter Broilers


Oyewole, B. O*1 and Omeje, A.1


1Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria


*Corresponding Author

Oyewole, B. O


Article History

Received: 22.03.2022

Accepted: 02.04.2022

Published: 10.04.2022


Abstract: The 21 day feeding trial was conducted with one hundred and twenty (120) 1-week old starter broilers to determine performance, haematology and serum biochemistry when fed graded levels of toasted bambaranut waste (TBNW). Five experimental diets that were formulated and compounded such that TBNW was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in the diets. The birds were randomly allotted to the five treatments of three replicates each. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among treatments in final body weight (FBW), daily weight gain (DWG) and daily feed intake (DFI) but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR). FBW ranged between 468.92 and 537.58g, DWG 18.55-21.38g, DFI 44.24-49.52g and FCR 2.34-2.79. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) among treatments in PCV. However, Hb, WBC, RBC, MCHC, MCH, neutrophils and lymphocytes values of the birds were significantly different (P<0.05). PCV ranged from 30.00 to 31.33%, Hb ranged from 10.27 to 11.60g/dl, WBC ranged 21.07 to 22.86x109/l, RBC ranged from 2.30 to 2.86x1012/l, MCV ranged from 107.33 to 122.67fl, MCHC ranged from 33.43 to 35.10%, MCH ranged from 36.00 to 41.50pg, neutrophils ranged from 4.00 to 6.67% and lymphocytes ranged from 93.33 to 96.00%. Significant differences (P<0.05) occurred among treatments in total protein, globulin, creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the serum albumin of birds across the treatments. Total protein ranged from 3.20 to 3.77mg/dl, albumin ranged from 2.10 to 2.37g/dl, globulin ranged from 1.30 to 1.67g/dl, creatinine ranged from 0.47 to 0.80mg/dl, glucose ranged from 195.33 to 219.67mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 195.00 to 258.00µ/l, and alanine aminotransferase ranged from 12.40 to 20.50µ/l. Inclusion of TBNW in the diets resulted in poorer performance indices but can be tolerated at not more than 10%. However, TBNW was not deleterious to the health of the birds


Keywords: Bambaranut, haematology, serum, starter broiler, performance

INTRODUCTION

The processing of the seeds of bambaranut into flour results in the production of the waste which contains 16.40% crude protein (Ani et al., 2012a). Raw bambaranut seed and the waste contain anti-nutritional factors such as protease inhibitors, haemaglutinins, tannins, cyanogens and flatulence factors (Doku and Karikari, 1981; Ensminger et al., 1990; Ani, 2007) despite containing high carbohydrate, and having the capacity to provide the animal with energy when consumed. According to Emendu and Emendu (2014), its protein and carbohydrate contents, makes it suitable for incorporation in livestock feed. Bambaranut waste has been used in the feeding of poultry and rabbits (Okeke, 2000; Ani and Okafor, 2004; Ani, 2006; Ani, 2008; Ani et al., 2012a). Feeding of monogastric animals with raw bambara nut waste is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Ani et al., (2012b) reported that the nutritive value of TBNW is negatively affected by its high fibre content and this has made the waste not suitable for inclusion in monogastric animal rations at high levels. Liener (1986) had attributed the destruction of red blood cells to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and toxicants such as cyanogens, tannins and lectins in the raw beans.


However, heat treatment and fermentation have been shown to improve the nutritive value of bambaranut offal or waste (Ani et al., 2012b; Denis et al., 2015). Increasing costs of conventional feed stuffs leads to increase in the cost of animal protein which results in high cost of production. As a result, the alternative ways of replacing some of these conventional feed stuffs with affordable and available non-conventional waste or agro by-products readily comes to mind (Adegbola and Okonkwo, 2000). This high price of conventional feed ingredients has necessitated the search by farmers and feed millers for alternative feedstuffs such as TBNW for livestock feeding.


Bambaranut waste is readily available in the study location due to high production of bambaranut and its use in the preparation of a local staple. The waste if not used for livestock feeding is of no nutritional use to man and may have to be discarded. The use of TBNW for poultry feeding therefore became imperative in the generation of wealth and production of meat for man, besides being an avenue to prevent environmental pollution. There was a need to ascertain how safe TBNW was through evaluation of haematology and serum biochemical profile of the birds.


Hence the study sought to determine the performance of starters broilers fed graded levels of toasted bambaranut waste, in addition to evaluate the haematology and serum biochemistry of starter broilers fed graded levels of toasted bambaranut waste.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

The feeding trial was conducted at the Poultry Unit of The Livestock Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University Anyigba, Dekina Local Government Area, Kogi State. Anyigba lies between latitude 705’N and 7021’E of the equator and longitude 70ll’N and 7032’E of the Greenwich meridian with an attitude of about 420m above sea level. The zone is characterized by 6-7 months of rainfall and daily temperature ranges between 250C and 350C (Ifatimehin et al., 2006).


The five experimental diets that were used for the study were formulated and compounded in such a way that TBNW was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in the experimental diets (Table 1). The TBNW used was sieved to pass through 2mm sieve (Oyewole et al., 2017).

Table 1: Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets for Starter Broilers (%)



Toasted Bambaranut Waste


Ingredients

0

5

10

15

20

Maize

30.90

25.90

20.90

15.90

10.90

Fullfat soybean

45.00

45.00

45.00

45.00

45.00

Toasted bambaranut waste

-

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Maize offal

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

Bone meal

3.30

3.30

3.30

3.30

3.30

Table salt

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Methionine

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Vitamin-Premix

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Total

100

100

100

100

100

Calculated Analysis

Crude protein (%)

22.53

22.64

22.75

22.86

22.97

Ether extract (%)

9.68

9.84

10.00

10.16

10.32

Crude fibre (%)

3.88

4.04

4.19

4.35

4.50

Calcium (%)

1.34

1.34

1.34

1.34

1.34

Phosphorus (%)

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.93

0.92

Lysine (%)

0.55

0.55

0.56

0.56

0.57

Methionine (%)

1.19

1.23

1.26

1.30

1.34

Cysteine (%)

1.37

1.39

1.42

1.42

1.44

TBNW: Toasted Bambaranut Waste


One hundred and twenty day old birds were purchased for the feeding trial. The birds were raised on commercial diet for one week before they were placed on the experimental diets. They were weighed and randomly allotted to the five treatments of three replicates each, such that there were eight birds per replicate. The design of the experiment was a Completely Randomized Design. All routine vaccinations and medications were strictly adhered to. The feeding trial lasted for three (3) weeks, feed and clean water were supplied ad-libitum. Data were collected on the initial weight of birds, final weight, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality.

Feed intake (g): feed offered (g) - left over (g)

Weight gain (g): final body weight (g) - initial weight (g)

Daily weight gain (g): final body weight - initial body weight / Number of days

Feed intake (g): feed offered (g) - left over (g)

Feed conversion ratio (FCR): This was obtained by dividing the quantity of feed consumed by the weight gained.

Mortality: Mortality was the total number of birds that died during the study. It was expressed in percentage (%).


Blood collection for haematological and serum evaluation of starter broilers was carried out at third week of the feeding trial when the birds were four weeks old. Birds were selected per replicate and blood samples collected through vein puncture of the wing vein using sterilized disposable needle after sterilizing the site with methylated spirit. Blood samples were delivered into a set of clean labeled bottles containing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) for haematological evaluation. While samples for serum biochemical evaluation were delivered into bottles free from EDTA. Haematological parameters evaluated were packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte. Serum metabolites evaluated include total protein, albumin, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and glucose.


Proximate Analysis of Test Ingredient and Diets

Samples of the toasted bambaranut waste (TBNW) and diets were analyzed for their proximate composition according to the method of A.O.A.C. (2010).


Data Analysis

All data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% probability level while Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was used to separate the mean that were significantly different, using SPSS version 2.0 computer statistical software package.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results

Proximate Composition of Toasted Bambaranut Waste and Experimental Diets of Broilers

The proximate composition of TBNW fed to broilers is shown in Table 2. Determined proximate composition of TBNW and energy showed dry matter (DM) 89.71%, crude protein (CP) 14.99%, crude fibre (CF) 2.00%, ether extract (EE) 3.58%, nitrogen-free extract (NFE) 67.02%, ash 2.12% and energy 3040.35kcal/kgME.

Table 2: Proximate Composition of Toasted Bambaranut Waste

Parameters

Toasted Bambaranut Waste

Dry matter (%)

89.71

Crude protein

14.99

Crude fibre (%)

2.00

Ether extract (%)

3.58

Ash (%)

2.12

Nitrogen free extract (%)

67.02

*Energy (kcal/kgME)

3040.35

*Metabolizable energy (37 x %CP+ 81 x %EE+ 35.5 x %NFE) (Pauzenga, 1985)


The proximate composition of the experimental diets is presented in Table 3. DM ranged from 89.04 - 89.49%, CP 22.01-25.01%, CF 5.20-5.84%, EE 5.10-6.21%, ash 6.56-7.49%, NFE 46.56-48.11% and energy 2948.95-2964.80 Kcal/KgME.

Table 3: Proximate Composition of Experimental Diets for Starter Broilers


Toasted Bambaranut Waste (%)

Parameters

0

5

10

15

20

Dry matter (%)

89.29

89.04

89.10

89.18

89.49

Crude protein (%)

25.01

24.35

24.49

24.14

22.01

Crude fibre (%)

5.20

5.42

5.46

5.32

5.84

Ether extract (%)

5.45

5.31

5.10

5.19

6.21

Ash (%)

6.56

6.95

7.49

6.94

7.31

Nitrogen free extract (%)

47.08

47.01

46.56

47.59

48.95

*Energy (kcal/kgME)

2964.80

2958.30

2950.85

2962.75

2948.95

*Metabolizable energy (37 x %CP+ 81 x %EE+ 35.5 x %NFE) (Pauzenga, 1985)


Performance of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets

Table 4 shows the effect of dietary TBNW on performance of starter broilers. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments in final body weight (FBW), daily weight gain (DWG) and daily feed intake (DFI) but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR). Chicks fed the control diet had significantly (P < 0.05) higher FBW and DWG than chicks fed 5, 10 and 20% TBNW diets. Chicks fed 20% TBNW diet had poorest (P > 0.05) FCR than chicks fed other diets. The final body weight ranged between 468.92 and 537.58g, daily weight gain 18.55-21.38g, daily feed intake 44.24-49.52g and feed conversion ratio 2.34 - 2.79.

Table 4: Performance of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste diet


Toasted Bambaranut Waste (%)

Parameters

0

5

10

15

20

SEM

LOS

Initial weight (g)

95.83

90.82

90.48

104.17

95.41

1.49


Final weight (g)

537.58a

512.50a

512.56a

477.25b

468.92b

12.95

*

Daily weight gain (g)

21.47a

21.38a

20.59a

18.55b

17.76b

0.65

*

Daily feed intake (g)

48.61a

44.24b

49.52a

48.81a

49.26a

0.95

*

Feed conversion ratio

2.34

2.35

2.41

2.63

2.79

0.78

NS

abcd: means on the same row with different letters are significantly different (P<0.05). * = significant, SEM = Standard error of mean, LOS = Level of significance, NS =Not Significant (P>0.05)


Haematology of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets

Haematological profile of the experimental birds is shown in Table 5. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) among treatments in packed cell volume (PCV). However, haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular, haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) neutrophils and lymphocytes values of the birds were significantly different (P<0.05). PCV ranged from 30.00 to 31.33%, Hb ranged from 10.27 to 11.60g/dl, WBC ranged 21.07 to 22.86x109/l, RBC ranged from 2.30 to 2.86x1012/l, MCV ranged from 107.33 to 122.67fl, MCHC ranged from 33.43 to 35.10%, MCH ranged from 36.00 to 41.50pg, neutrophils ranged from 4.00 to 6.67% and lymphocytes ranged from 93.33 to 96.00%.

Table 5: Haematology of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets


Toasted Bambaranut Waste (%)

Parameters

0

5

10

15

20

SEM

LOS

Packed cell volume (%)

30.00

31.33

30.67

30.00

31.33

0.68

NS

Haemoglobin (g/dl)

11.60a

10.50b

10.27b

10.30b

11.00a

0.24

*

White blood cell (x109/l)

22.37b

22.86a

21.13c

21.07c

22.60ab

3.20

*

Red blood cell (x1012/l)

2.85a

2.56c

2.86a

2.30d

2.67b

0.05

*

Mean corpuscular volume (fl)

122.67a

122.33a

107.33c

121.00a

117.67b

2.83

*

MCHC (%)

34.20b

33.57c

33.43c

34.33b

35.10a

0.26

*

MCH (pg)

40.93a

41.23a

36.00b

41.50a

41.43a

1.10

*

Neutrophils (%)

4.00c

6.62a

5.00b

6.67a

6.00a

0.48

*

Lymphocytes (%)

96.00a

93.33c

95.00b

93.33c

94.00c

0.48

*

abcd: means on the same row with different letters are significantly different (P<0.05). * = significant, SEM = Standard error of mean, LOS = Level of significance, NS =Not Significant (P>0.05). MCHC-Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, MCH-Mean corpuscular haemoglobin


Serum Biochemistry of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets

Table 6 shows the serum biochemical indices. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments in total protein, globulin, creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the serum albumin of birds across the treatments. Total protein ranged from 3.20 to 3.77mg/dl, albumin ranged from 2.10 to 2.37g/dl, globulin ranged from 1.30 to 1.67g/dl, creatinine ranged from 0.47 to 0.80mg/dl, glucose ranged from 195.33 to 219.67mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 195.00 to 258.00µ/l, and alanine aminotransferase ranged from 12.40 to 20.50µ/l.


Table 6: Serum Biochemistry of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets


Toasted Bambaranut Waste (%)

Parameters

0

5

10

15

20

SEM

LOS

Total protein (g/dl)

3.77a

3.73a

3.60a

3.53b

3.20c

0.10

*

Albumin (g/dl)

2.10

2.37

2.27

2.23

2.10

0.10

NS

Globulin (g/dl)

1.67a

1.37b

1.33b

1.30b

1.33b

0.10

*

Creatinine (mg/dl)

0.47c

0.60b

0.63ab

0.70ab

0.73a

0.05

*

Glucose (mg/dl)

195.33c

209.35b

219.67a

196.33c

196.33c

3.80

*

Aspartate aminotransferase (µ/l)

224.33b

258.00a

239.00b

254.33a

195.00c

8.58

*

Alanine aminotransferase (µ/l)

20.50a

15.60b

12.40c

16.20b

16.60b

1.73

*

abcd: means on the same row with different letters are significantly different (P<0.05). * = significant, SEM = Standard error of mean, LOS = Level of significance, NS =Not Significant (P>0.05)


DISCUSSION

The observed DM is higher than 88.00% reported by Ani et al., (2012a), but lower than 89.80% reported by Ani et al., (2012a). The observed difference may have resulted from differences in varieties of seeds used and from the processing methods (Ani et al., 2012a). However, the observed dry matter (DM) value of the TBNW used in this study shows that it was well dried to preserve for long. Crude protein (CP) is lower than 18.30% reported by Ani et al., (2012), 17.30% by Anhwamge et al., (2006) and 17.50% by Emendu and Emendu (2014). Consequently, TBNW cannot be used as protein ingredient. The low value of crude fibre shows that TBNW can be digested and readily utilized by monogastrics. The value is lower than 11.30% reported by Amaefule and Osuagwu (2005) and 20% obtained by Ani et al., (2012a). The observed difference may have resulted from differences in processing methods employed. The observed value for ether extract (EE) shows that toasted bambaranut waste (TBNW) contains fat which is a source of energy. Anhwamge and Atoo (2015) opined that high EE content of the plant indicates the seed could provide more heat and energy to the body. The observed value of EE in this study is lower than the value of 5.36% reported by Ani et al., (2012a) and 5.00% reported by Emendu and Emendu (2014). The observed difference might be due to the differences in variety of seeds used, soil type and the method of processing the TBNW (Amaefule and Obioha, 1998; Ani, 2006). The value of ash shows that TBNW has minerals that could maintain oasmotic pressure and regulate the exchange of water and solute within the animal body as well as the essential constituents of the skeletal structure (Aduku, 2004). The observed nitrogen free extract (NFE) shows that TBNW contains enough soluble carbohydrate and other digestible and easily utilizable non-nitrogenous substances that can make the animal easily digest and absorbed the TBNW. The observed NFE is close to 67.84% reported by Emendu and Emendu (2014) and higher than 41.64% reported by Ani et al., (2012a). Anhwamge and Atoo (2015) stated that, high carbohydrate content of plant material indicates it could provide more heat and energy in the body. The estimated metabolizable energy (ME) of the TBNW is an indication that the material had enough energy value needed by animals to grow, maintain their structures and as well respond to their environment. The ME value of TBNW is lower than 3860.4kcal/kgME reported by Emendu and Emendu (2014).


Proximate Composition of Experimental Diets for Starter Broilers

The observed dry matter (DM) values of the experimental diets used in the study may suggest that all diets were low in moisture content which is an indicator of good quality and a key to safe storage (Bala, 1997). NRI (1995) stated that feed with high moisture content, temperature and poor aeration during storage is predisposed to mycotoxins and spoilage which can pose health problems to birds when fed. The observed crude protein (CP) shows that the experimental diets were adequate in protein required for the synthesis of body tissues, physiological molecules and carcass growth and development (Ofori et al., 2019). Ofori et al., (2019) reported that increase in CP of diets results in improvement in weight of birds. The observed crude fibre values are higher than the recommended values for broilers (NRC, 1994; Aduku, 2004). However, they are similar and do not appear to have adverse effect on feed utilization. The observed values of ether extract (EE) show that the diets contain adequate fat which can generate heat and energy for the birds (Anhwamge and Atoo, 2015). Observed values are above the NIS (1989) standard. According to NRC (1994), fat component of poultry diet helps to increase overall energy concentration and in turn improve productivity and feed efficiency. The observed values for ash show that the experimental diets had sufficient minerals (Aduku, 2004), and are higher than the range of 2.50-3.50 % reported by Ani et al., (2012a). The observed difference may be attributed to ingredient combination and method of processing the diets (Amaefule and Obioha, 1998; Ani and Okorie, 2005).


NFE values of the experimental diets are within the range of 40.50-53.31% observed by Ani et al., (2012a). This indicates the presence of soluble carbohydrate that can be converted to energy.


The metabolizable energy (ME) of the experimental diets shows that the diets contain adequate energy needed by the birds to grow, maintain their structure and as well as respond to their environment conditions. The observed ME values are below the range recommended by NRC (1994). However, they are similar for all the diets.


Performance of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets

Birds fed the control diet had the highest final body weight (FBW). FBW appear to decline as the level of TBNW increased in the diets. Birds on the control diet had the best daily weight gain (DWG) while 20% TBNW had the poorest. The pattern of daily feed intake was not definite. However, observed values may suggest that the feed intake was adequate. Consequently, TBNW in diet did not depress intake. The observed values for feed conversion ratio did not indicate that TBNW in the diets compromised feed utilization for growth.


Haematology of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets

Observed packed cell volume (PCV) across the treatments fall within the normal range of 22 - 35% for healthy chickens reported by Bounous and Stedman (2000), while Peter (2002) reported normal avian PCV to be 40 - 60%. Oyewole et al., (2018a) reported 29.00% - 31.00% for PCV for healthy broilers. Isaac et al., (2013) stated that PCV is involved in the transport of oxygen and absorbed nutrients. On the other hand, Oyawoye and Ogunkunle (1998) reported that PCV value is an index of toxicity in the blood, when low. The PCV values are therefore adequate as these are within reference ranges for healthy birds. Consequently, TBNW did not impair oxygen transport and nutrient absorption. More so, it did not result in toxicity. The observed values of haemoglobin (Hb) of birds fall within the normal range of 7-13g/dl reported by Bounous and Stedman (2000), Ikhimioya et al., (2000) and Oyewole et al., (2018a) for healthy birds. Etim et al., (2014) reported that haemoglobin react with oxygen carried in the blood to form oxyhaemoglobin during respiration. Hence the birds had sufficient vitamins and minerals from all the diets which enabled them to synthesize sufficient haemoglobin which aided oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation in the blood (Oyewole et al., 2018a). The values for white blood cell (WBC) obtained in this study are within the normal range of 12-30x109/l reported by Bounous and Stedman (2000) for healthy birds. WBCs are responsible for defense of the body against infection. They defend the body by phagocytocis against invasion by foreign organisms and produce or at least transport, distribute immune responses (Etim et al., 2014). The values of WBC show that TBNW inclusion in the diets did not compromise immune status of birds. The values of red blood cell (RBC) obtained in this study were within the range of 2.5-3.5x1012/l reported by Bounous and Stedman (2000) for healthy birds. RBCs (erythrocytes) serve as carrier of haemoglobin (Etim et al., 2014), and are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbondioxide in the body. Hence, RBC count observed in this study implies that adequate levels of oxygen were carried to the tissues as well as carbon dioxide returned to the lungs (Soetan et al., 2013; Isaac et al., 2013 and Etim et al., 2014; Ani and Omeje, 2011). A low level of RBC may be due to anaemia (Peter, 2002), the birds were not anaemic. The observed mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values are within the ranges of 90-140fl and 132.27-134.87fl reported by Bounous and Stedman (2000) and Oyewole et al., (2018a) respectively, for healthy broilers. Thus the values of MCV obtained in this study indicated that the TBNW diets where adequate in terms of vitamin and minerals. Hence, the birds were healthy, not anaemic and capable of withstanding stress (Maxwell, 1993). Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were higher than the normal ranges of 32.4-33.21% and 29.80-31.63g/dl reported by Wikivet (2012) and Oyewole et al., (2018) respectively, but fall with the range reported by Mitruka and Rawnsley (1977) for healthy birds. Aster (2004) advanced that low level of MCHC is an indication of anaemia. Oyawoye and Ogunkunle (1998) opined that MCHC is useful in monitoring feed toxicity especially with feed constituents that affect the blood as well as the health status of farm animals. Thus the values of MCHC obtained in this study may indicate that the TBNW diets were adequately utilized by the birds and posed no problem to them. The values of MCH obtained in this study were within the normal range for healthy birds. (Bounous and Stedman (2000) recorded the range of 33-47pg while Oyewole et al., (2018a) reported 40.10pg-41.87pg. Lower levels of MCH may indicate anaemia. Observed MCH values may indicate that the bone marrow of bird was functioning normally, hence the absence of macrocytic and hypochronic anaemia. The observed values for neutrophils are within the normal range for healthy birds. Since the main function of neutrophils is phagocytosis, the values of neutrophils of birds on TBNW diet are adequate for ingestion and destruction of foreign particles (Maxwell and Robertson, 1998). The observed values for lymphocytes are within the normal range for healthy birds (Oyewole et al., 2018b). The values of lymphocytes in this study therefore show that TBNW inclusion in broiler diets did not have negative effect on the immune response of birds.


Serum Biochemistry of Starter Broilers Fed Toasted Bambaranut Waste Diets

The total protein values indicate that birds fed the control diet had the highest value which declined with the inclusion of TBNW. Nonetheless, all values observed are within the normal range of 2.5-4.5g/dl observed by Thrall (2007); 3-5g/dl for birds reported by Elliot et al., (1974); 3.0-4.9 by Meluzzi et al., (1992); 3.5-5.5gdl reported by Peter (2002) and 3.97-4.80g/dl for starter broilers fed cashew pulp meal based diets (Oyewole et al., 2017). Peter (2002) stated that low protein level is an indication of poor diet. Serum albumin values are all within the normal albumin range of 1.17-2.74g/dl reported by Meluzzi et al., (1992) and 1.73g/dl to 2.37g/dl (Oyewole et al., 2017). Globulin values are within the normal range of 1.15-1.53g/dl reported by Chicken-Biochemistry (2016) and the 0.5-1.8g/dl reported by Thrall (2007). The creatinine level of birds fed the control diet was lower than the creatinine levels of birds fed the TBNW diets. All the values of creatinine reported are within the normal reference range of 0.5-1.5mg/dl (Levey et al., 2006). Creatinine concentrations lower than the reference range for young animals are usually caused by decreased muscle mass due to muscle atrophy arising from starvation (Laskin et al., 2014). Younger and older broilers have low levels of creatinine (Sandhu et al., 1998). An elevated level of creatinine usually indicates a muscular condition due to poor quality of protein in the diets. This was not so with the birds in this study. Serum glucose values fall within the range reported by Sandhu et al., (1998) and Peter (2002) for broilers. According to Wasserman (2009), a persistent elevation in blood glucose levels leads to glucose toxicity which contributes to cell dysfunction. This may indicate that TBNW may not have had adverse effect on the birds.


Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values in this study reveal that the birds responded differently to the TBNW diets. All AST values are within the range of 70-220µ/l reported by Meluzzi et al., (1992) and 102.33-135.67µ/l (Oyewole et al., 2017). Serum values greater than 350µ/l are considered abnormal and are often indicators of liver disease. The observed values showed that the TBNW inclusion in the diets did not cause liver damage to birds. Hence, TBNW is safe when fed to animals. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values in this study are above 4.00-7.33µ/l (Oyewole et al., 2017) but close to 18.99-20.06 µ/l reported by Abdel-Fattah et al., (2008) for healthy birds. The observed values showed that the TBNW inclusion in the diets did not cause liver damage to birds. Hence, TBNW is safe when fed to starter broilers.


CONCLUSION

Inclusion of TBNW in the diets resulted in poorer performance indices of starter broilers. However, broilers fed 10% inclusion had similar weight with those on the control. Hence starter broilers can be fed up to 10% TBNW in the diet. The feeding trial also revealed that TBNW is safe for starter broilers as no deleterious effects were observed in the blood parameters of the birds even at 20% inclusion.


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