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Go Back       Himalayan Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies | Volume:2 Issue:1 | Feb. 28, 2021
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DOI : 10.47310/Hjhcs.2021.v02i01.004       Download PDF       HTML       XML

The Effects of Nepotism and Favoritism on Employee Behaviors in the Private and Government Organization in the Period

Akhand P.N Mishra

Assistant Librarian Rama P.G. College, Uttar Pradesh, India

Article History

Received: 05.02.2021 , Accepted: 17.02.2021, Published: 28.02.2021

Abstract: Nepotism And Favoritism That Can Be Seen In Most Institutions / Organization Today Which Has Became A Fairly Common Topic, Whereas The Objective Of Any Organization Should Be To Assign Work To Every Person According To His Ability And To Create Such Situations So That He Can Make Full Use Of His Ability So That Makes Optimal Use Of Research Possible Granting Privileges To Some Individuals Is Very Disturbing Situation For The Employees Of The Institution Which Result In Severe Consequences That Lack Of Trust, Job Satisfaction , Organizational Loyalty And Personal Performance To Effects Negatively Influenced. Nepotism And Favoritism Is The Type And Nature Of Recruitment Practices Which Are Strategically Placed To Make The Job Fit For Effective Productivity Performance.

Keywords: Nepotism, Favoritism, Job Performance, Recruitment, Star Selection.


Nepotism & Favoritism have been criticized as being unprofessional while preventive legal measures are adopted against preferential treatment in developed countries; in developing countries such practices continue to be part of daily life.

Nepotism and Favoritism is a very common behavior in the organization. In the organization with intense preferential treatment, the human departments fail to independently carry out its activities, Thus under such conditions, appointment based on competence and knowledge accumulation seem impossible. If employees are in competition with a privileged individual, their probability of promoting is quite low. However, working under an incompetent person is distressing situation for an employee subject to preferential treatment. The lack of confidence that appears in such circumstances negatively affects Job satisfaction, Organizational loyalty, Individual performance, Lack of trust. Especially favoritism based pay system leads to detachment from the organization. While this means a weakness for the favored individual, it denotes the existence of an organization in question. In such an environment, individual & organizational failure is ultimately inevitable.

In this regard, some processes need to be performed in accordance with the standards of the work area in the auditing process of the Organization. One phase of this process is the auditing of the internal control mechanism. Internal control is steered by the board of directors, managers and employees of an organization in order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, the reliability of the financial reporting system, and regulatory compliance, and it is designed to provide reasonable assurance in this regard and defined as a system due to its place among processes. According to the work area standards in the set of international auditing standards published by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB), the examination of the internal control system is a requirement of the auditing process. The effects of the internal control system on the auditing process depend on the management’s ability to create, implement, and manage the internal control standards. This is only possible with the existence of a corporate management. However, the phenomena of nepotism, favoritism cause negativities during the institutionalization of organization and hinder the business management’s ability to manage this process well. The remainder of this study is organized as follows. In the next sections, the concepts of family businesses, nepotism, favoritism, cronyism, and organizational trust are examined based on the literature. The proposed hypotheses and methodology are presented in the next section, together with the sample, instruments and findings of the research. Finally, in the last section, a brief summary and concluding remarks are presented with a discussion of the results, limitations, and suggestions for future studies.

Job Performance

Job performance is the effective effort made by an employee to achieve a planned goal successfully by conducting and concluding a task effectively performance is evaluated by quantitative and qualitative scores of a individual employee, terms or the organization based on predetermined targets for a certain period.

Performance is determined an employee’s knowledge, skills, ability and capabilities in order to reach his targets or expectations through an evaluation process. The reason for performance evaluation is to make division on an employee about salary increment, promotion or discipline in line with the performance evaluation result.


Recruitment is the process concerned with the identification of sources from where the personnel can be employed and motivating them to offer themselves for employment.

Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are

Submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected”

Lord has defined recruitment in terms of its competitive nature. He was that,

Recruitment is a form of competition. Just as corporations compete to develop, manufacture, and market the best product or service, so they must also compete to identify, attract and hire the most qualified people.

Thus recruitment process is concerned with the identification of possible sources of human resource supply and tapping those sources, In the total process of acquiring and placing human resources in the organization, recruitment falls in between different sub-processes as shown in Figure:-

Image is Available in PDF Format

Staff Selection

Selection can be conceptualization in terms of either choosing the fit candidate, or rejecting the unfit candidates or a combination of both.

Selection is the process of differentiating between applications in order to identify

(and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job”

Selection process assumes and rightly so, that there are more number of candidates available than the number of candidates actually selected. These candidates are made available through recruitment process.

Image is Available in PDF Format

Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for Jobs in an organization. It is often termed positive in that it stimulates people to apply for jobs to increase the hiring ratio, the number of applicants for a job. Selection, on the other hand, tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.

Staff Training & Development

Training and Development of employees is always meant to close the gap between current performance and expected future behavior after a successful performance appraisal. They noted that training and development activities are focused to either improve performance on the present job of the incumbent, training new skills for better performance or for succession planning and future growth of both individuals and organization so as to be able individuals and organization so as to be able to meet organizations strategic objectives.

Image is Available in PDF Format

Image is Available in PDF Format

Framework of Nepotism and Job Performance

For the empirical literature, studies show that there is a relationship between nepotism and job performance. A question arises as to whether the relationship is positive or negative. The conceptual model in Figure below depicts this relationship and seeks to show whether it is positive or negative. The figure shows that there is significant direct relationship between nepotism and job performance.

Conceptual Framework

Image is Available in PDF Format

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

The sad reality is that office nepotism is still present and it dictates different company processes like recruitment, promotions, salary increase, among other. It is a potent threat to a company /

Impact of Nepotism in Organization

Organization growth, as well as individual career progress. In situation where jobs are hard to find, nepotism can be quite demoralization to notice that someone else is getting a job you deserve or the promotion you have been eyeing, all because they knew someone in the management. The biggest downside of office nepotism is that most often than not, it locks out qualified people who would have greatly impacted on performance and give the undeserving few an edge. It should be noted that workplace nepotism mostly enhances the hiring of people with fewer skills, qualifications and experience into position based on their relationship with the hiring manager, other managers or the overall boss.

Object of the Study:-

The present study is based on the following objectives

  • To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their attitude.

  • To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their belief.

  • To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their natural setting.

  • To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their experiences.

Literature Review:-

The review of related literature is very important because a research should have the knowledge about what has gone before. Therefore a researcher has to survey the available literature relating to his field of study. The review of related literature involves the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem.

This chapter discusses literature on the theoretical grounding of the study, the first part focusing on perceptual behaviors at recruitment, promotions, rewards, training and development and Job performance of employees in both public and private organization. The second part will discuss literature showing relationship between nepotism, Favoritism and job performance and the third and last part discussing the conceptual framework and the hypothesis to be tested.

In research methodology the term literature refers to knowledge of a particular area of the most important aspect of research became it provides sources of the problem of study and also helps in the formation of hypothesis, selection of methodology and other things to complete in research. "A literature review is an account of what has been”. In written the review, the purpose is to convey to the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic and what their seniors weakness etc.


Research methodology is the plan, structure & strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control vaccine.

The plan is the overall scheme or programmed of the research. It included an of what the investigator will do from writing the hypothesis and their operational implications to final analysis of data.


A sample is a small proportion of a population selected by abbreviation and analysis. Sample is chosen in a random way, so that the equal chance of profit ability can be utilized.


Present study work is aimed at a study of behavior of employee of government and private organization. So the following tools were employed considering the objective of the study and feasibility of their use, behavior orientation scale. This behavior scale is fairly reliable and valid that has been tasted.

Statistical Techniques:-

For the present study, questionnaire data were analyzed and scored.

Analysis & Interpretation:-

Result are presented and discussed as follows in the order of the objectives of the study.

Objective 1:-

To Study whether the employee of government and private organization are different in their attitude.

Showing the total no. of employees from the government and private organization, different in attitude

Range of Score


Government Organization

Private organization

136 & above

Very high



116 - 135




96 - 115




76 - 95




75- below

Very Low





50 | 100

There are total 100 employees, 50 from government and 50 from private are included.

There is total number of private employee 5 which has very high, and there is total no of government employee 17 which has very low.

So we can say that from the 100 employee of government and private organization 5 private employees is very high level, which shows they are not different in their attitudes and all aspects related to behavior orientation scale (BOS).

Objective 2:-

To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their attitude.

Showing table for government and private organization employee as the level of Behavior orientation scale.

Range of score


No of employee of government

No of employee of private

136 & above

Very high



116 - 135




96. - 115




76. - 95




75 - below

Very Low






On the basic of range of raw score, the belief level for government employee are represented as the moderate level which is 14 here, which shows that the employee of government organization are moderate with their belief, they are belongs to government organization but they aren't backward in their thinking, and private employee are calculated as per the raw data are 33, which shows the employee of private organization are much high.

Objective 3:

To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their natural setting.

As the table no 1, 2 shows there is much difference between the learning process of government and private organization employee.

The employee of government organization has scored very low, but employee of private organization are scored very high is 5 and high is 9 and so we can say that there is difference between the learning process of government and private organization.

Objective 4:

To study whether the employee of Government and Private organization are different in their experiences.

According to the table no 1, 2 and raw data there is total no of employee are 100, including 50 from government and 50 from private organization. The table shows there no of government organization employee in area of High is 8 but they rise of very high is 1, so here I can say the employee of government organization aren't so much difference in their experience but private organization employee are much experience holder as per their social environment.


On the basic of the result of the present study, the following conclusion can be down -

  • There are total 6 employees with very high level

  • There are total 17 employees with high level

  • There are total 47 employees with moderate level

  • There are total 11 employees with low level

  • There are total 18 employees with very low level

  • On comparing the employees of government and private organization with the overall way the private organization employee and more aware rather than the employees of government organization

  • On comparing the employee of government organization and private organization employees with the component of view the result shows that the employee of private organization are more behavior oriented rather government employees

On comparing the employee of government organization and private organization employee with component of tactics, the natural setting of private employee is very well than the employee of government organization.

On comparing the employee of government organization and private organization with the component of morality, employees of private organization are more aware to their rights they have much understanding of their goodness.


  • This study is helpful to get knowledge about employee awareness about behavior of employee s.

  • This study is helpful to understand the employee and awareness in the social environment

  • This study will also find out the problems which are barriers of employees behavior

  • This study is helpful to indication the employee are more aware to their rights rather than government employees.


The results obtained from this study are important for the executives and employees of the Organization The executives should primarily develop their department in order to increase the performance, , job satisfaction and organizational commitment of their employees.

The findings of the study indicate that nepotism and favoritism have adverse effects on employees and those advantages arising from nepotism and favoritism are only in favor of the privileged person. However. Nepotism and favoritism damage the team spirit on the way to success. Moreover, in organizations with intense nepotism and favoritism, employees, for the purpose of promotion, will prefer to establish close relationship with any of the family members, who might favor him or her, instead of working harder. Despite limited job opportunities in Turkey, the organizational commitment of employees with low level of job satisfaction due to nepotism and favoritism may decrease and thus, may quit their job.


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