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Research Article | Volume 4 Issue 5 (Issue September, 2023) | Pages 1 - 6
Analysis of the Total Number of Bacteria, Total Coliform, And Staphylococcus Aureus in Chicken Meat from Traditional Markets and Supermarkets (Case Study of Traders in Traditional Markets and Supermarkets in the Cimahi Area)
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 ,
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1
Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University, West Java, 40132 Indonesia
Under a Creative Commons license
Open Access
Received
Aug. 30, 2023
Revised
Aug. 30, 2023
Accepted
Sept. 5, 2023
Published
Oct. 11, 2023
Abstract

Traditional markets and supermarkets offer chicken meat at set hours, open tables, and room temperature. However, in supermarkets, the tables are equipped with coolers like ice cubes, low temperatures, and longer serving times. This has the potential for bacterial contamination. This research aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets based on the total number of bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, and the pH value of the chicken meat. The survey method is used, and the data is analyzed descriptively. Surveys were conducted on chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets regarding the total number of bacteria, Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus, and the pH in the chicken carcass. The total number of bacteria in chicken meat in traditional markets for all traders is between 1.2 x 105 – 1.4 x 108 cfu/g, while that sold in supermarkets (12 × 106 cfu/g), all exceed the BMC based on SNI 7388:2009, while coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were only found in trader B (4 × 106 cfu/g and 3 × 102 cfu/g), trader D (2 × 102 cfu/g and 2 × 102 cfu/g) and trader F 1 × 104 cfu/g and 2 × 102 cfu/g), the pH value of chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets is 5.64 - 6.30.

Keywords
Chicken carcass
Bacteria
Coliform
Staphylococcus aureus
PH
Important Note

Key findings:

The study evaluated the microbiological quality of chicken meat from traditional markets and supermarkets, finding bacterial contamination levels exceeding SNI 7388:2009 standards. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1.2 x 10^5 to 1.4 x 10^8 cfu/g, with coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus present in some samples. The pH values were 5.64 - 6.30.

 

What is known and what is new?

Chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets can be subject to bacterial contamination. Previous studies have highlighted concerns about bacterial counts, including coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus, in meat products. This research provides specific data on the microbiological quality of chicken meat in traditional markets and supermarkets, showing that bacterial contamination levels in both settings exceed SNI 7388:2009 standards. It also highlights pH values of chicken meat, offering a new parameter for assessing meat quality in these environments.

 

What is the implication, and what should change now?

The findings indicate a significant risk of bacterial contamination in chicken meat from both traditional markets and supermarkets, potentially posing health risks to consumers. The high levels of bacteria, including coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus, suggest that current handling and storage practices are inadequate. Enhanced regulations and enforcement of food safety standards are necessary to ensure the microbiological quality of chicken meat. Both traditional markets and supermarkets should adopt stricter hygiene practices, including better temperature control and regular microbial testing, to reduce contamination and protect public health.

Introduction

The model for serving chicken carcasses in traditional markets and supermarkets is served on open tables, at room temperature, and for a certain time. However, in supermarkets, the table where chicken meat is sold is equipped with a cooler in the form of ice cubes at low temperatures and over a longer period. This provides an opportunity for contamination with microorganisms, both based on the conditions of the serving location and the length of time it is served. In traditional markets, chicken carcasses are served on open tables, from 05.00 am to 11.00 noon. In contrast, in supermarkets they are usually served on open tables equipped with refrigeration at a temperature of ±10oC. Starting from 10.00 am to 8.00 pm, after it is stored in the refrigerator (4oC), it is served again on an open table the next day, and the product change time is once every 3 days. Based on this, as a case study, it is necessary to analyze the biological quality of chicken meat carcasses served in traditional markets and supermarkets in the Cimahi area. The biological quality examined includes the total number of Coliform bacteria, and the number of Staphylococcus aureus in marketed chicken meat, carried out in the morning when the chicken carcass is served.

 

In contrast, chicken meat served in supermarkets is analyzed at the start of serving. This is intended to determine whether the biological quality of the chicken carcass is safe for trade. Chicken meat sold in supermarkets is not much different from that sold in traditional markets, except that the table served is equipped with a cooler. According to (Suprayogo et al., 2014) [1], chicken meat sold in supermarkets is contaminated with bacteria that exceeds the BMC based on SNI 7388:2009.

 

Chicken meat contains high protein, which is liked by bacteria, so chicken meat is easily contaminated with bacteria. Bacterial contamination of chicken meat can come from the slaughter place, the tools used, workers, dust, air, and water for washing. Chicken meat sold in several traditional markets contains a total bacterial plate count of 3.7 × 107 cfu/g, while according to (Apriyanti et al., 2020) [2], chicken meat sold in traditional markets contains a total bacterial plate count of 1 x 106 cfu/g. According to (Ramadhani et al., 2020) [3], the total number of bacteria in chicken meat in traditional markets from various traders is 1.2 x 105 – 1.4 x 108 cfu/g. According to (Utari et al., 2016) [4], the total number of bacteria in chicken meat sold in traditional markets is a low number of bacteria, namely between 2.5 x 10and 1.2 x 105; this can happen because the chicken meat is sold fresh. And in a short time, less than 4 hours. 

 

Coliform bacteria can be used as indicators to determine the quality of food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Coliforms consist of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, and Citrobacter sp. [5]. (Amirah et al., 2022) [5], Coliform bacterial contamination of chicken meat can cause human diseases, known as food-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and typhoid fever. Coliform bacterial contamination in chicken meat can come from workers, water sources, and the surrounding environment (Utari et al., 2016) [4]; (Zelpina et al., 2020) [6]. Coliform bacteria that contaminate chicken meat sold in supermarkets show low numbers, around 83.2 x 103 cfu/g, related to the marketing place and storage temperature [7]. 

 

Staphylococcus aureus bacterial contamination in chicken meat will affect the quality of chicken meat. According to (Rahmawati et al., 2018) [8], the source of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial contamination comes from equipment and workers who do not implement good sanitation. If it contaminates food, the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can cause poisoning and dehydration. Sources of contaminants can come from workers who do not implement good sanitation [9]. The standard maximum limit for bacterial contamination (BMCB) in chicken meat based on SNI 7388:2009 (30 °C, 72 hours) is 1 × 106 cfu/g for a total plate count, 1 × 102 cfu/g (Firdausyi et al., 2022) [10] for Coliform bacteria and 1 × 10cfu/g for Staphylococcus aureus. This research aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets based on the total number of bacteria, the number of Coliform bacteria, and the number of Staphylococcus found in chicken meat.

Materials & Methods

The research material used included chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets in the Cimahi area, West Java.

 

This research method is a survey method, and the data is analyzed descriptively. Surveys were conducted on chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets regarding the total number of bacteria, the number of Coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, and the pH in the chicken carcass. Analysis of the total number of bacteria, number of coliform bacteria, and number of Staphylococcus aureus pH measurements were carried out in the test laboratory. Data was obtained by carrying out the Total Plate Count (TPC) test to determine the total number of bacteria using Nutrient Agar (NA) media and the number of coliform bacteria using MacConkey Agar (MCA) media, as well as calculating the number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria using Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) media.). pH measurement in chicken carcasses.

 

Calculation of Total Plate Count Bacteria, Number of Coliform Bacteria and Number of Staphylococcus aureus (SNI 7388:2009)

Calculating the total number of bacteria, the number of Coliform bacteria, and the number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria using the dilution method, thigh meat samples from each trader were weighed 10 g each, then 90 ml of physiological NaCl solution was added and stirred until homogeneous so that a dilution was obtained. 10-1. The sample mixture was transferred 1 ml into a test tube containing 9 ml of NaCl solution, and this was a 10-2 dilution, and so on up to a 10-8 dilution.

 

The TPC test begins by inserting 1 ml of sample from the 10-8 dilution into a petri dish filled with 20 ml of NA media. Then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The Coliform bacteria test begins by inserting 1 ml of sample from dilution 10-6 into a petri dish filled with 20 ml of McConkey's medium, then incubating at 37°C for 48 hours. The Staphylococcus aureus bacterial test begins by inserting 1 ml of sample from the 10-2 dilution into a petri dish filled with 20 ml of Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA), then incubating at 37°C for 48 hours. All chicken carcass samples from each trader had their pH measured.

Results and Discussion

Chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets are sold in the open and at room temperature (25oC) starting in the morning at 05.00 and ending at 13.00. In contrast, chicken carcasses sold in supermarkets are sold in open areas equipped with refrigeration (low temperature). 10oC), starting at 10.00 until 20.00. The results of interviews with traders at traditional markets showed that several traders slaughtered themselves and then sold the chicken carcasses directly in the exact location as the slaughtering place. Some traders take their chickens from the chicken slaughtering place and then take them to the market to be sold, starting at 05.00 WIB and ending at 13.00. At the same time, the results of interviews with supermarket officers show that chicken carcasses are obtained from suppliers every 3 days and served immediately in an open area equipped with a cooler (temperature 10oC). The results of the analysis of the total number of bacteria, the number of Coliform bacteria, the number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, and the pH value in the chicken carcass are presented in Table 1.

 

Table 1. Average total number of bacteria, number of Coliform bacteria, number bacteria of Staphylococcus 

aureus, pH value in chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and Supermarket.

 

Sample

 

Chicken meat

 

 

Total number of bacteria (cfu/g)

 

Number of Coliform Bacteria ( cfu/g)

 

Number of S.aureus

Bacteria (cfu/g)

 

 

pH

Traditional market 

A

  39 × 107

-

-

6,01

B

134 × 108

4 × 106

3 × 102

5,58

C

  25 × 107

-

-

6,28

D

  70 × 108

2 × 102

2 × 102

5,83

 

E

  14 × 107

-

-

6,09

 

F

117 × 108

1 × 104

2 × 102

5,64

Supermarket

 

SM

  12 × 106

-

-

6,30

 

Information: 

A: Trader 1 in the traditional markets,

B: Trader 2 in the traditional markets

C: Trader 3 in the traditional markets

D: Trader 4 in the traditional markets

E: Trader 5 in the traditional markets

F: Trader 6 in the traditional markets

SM : Trader at Supermarket

 

The results of testing the total number of bacteria (Table 1) show that overall, the total number of bacteria in all traders in traditional markets is higher than in supermarkets. The total number of bacteria tested exceeds the limit of all traders from both traditional markets and supermarkets. According to SNI 7388: 2009, maximum bacterial contamination is Total Plate Number (30oC, 72 hours) 1 × 106 cfu/g. For Trader B, trader D, and trader F, the total number of bacteria on chicken meat was very high because Trader B slaughtered the chickens he sold himself, and the slaughtering place was attached to the place selling the chicken meat. Vendor D and Vendor F placed the chicken meat they were selling on a dirty table, and Vendor F even added a cardboard mat to his selling table. This is thought to be bacterial contamination from the environment. This is in line with the opinion of (Nugroho Aerita et al., 2014a) [11], which states that sanitation of chicken carcass marketing locations influences the amount of bacterial contamination in chicken meat carcasses. Chicken meat marketed in several traditional markets contains a total bacterial plate count of 3.7 × 107 cfu/g, and according to (Ramadhani et al., 2020) [3], the total number of bacteria in chicken meat in traditional markets from various traders between 1.2 x 105 – 1.4 x 10cfu/g. The total bacterial test results of the plate count of chicken meat sold in supermarkets (12 × 106 cfu/g) still exceed the BMC, this is even though the chicken meat is sold in an open place equipped with a cooler (low-temperature 10oC), but the chicken meat is replaced within 3 days. Once, thus allowing the growth of bacteria in the chicken meat. According to (Astalia Zuanita et al., 2014a) [12] and (Suprayogo et al., 2014) [1], chicken meat sold in supermarkets is contaminated with bacteria that exceeds the BMC based on SNI 7388:2009.

 

The results of testing for Coliform bacteria on chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets, there were three traders whose Coliforms were identified as exceeding the SNI 7388:2009 standard, namely 12 × 102 cfu/g, namely trader B, trader D and trader F, each chicken meat those sold were identified as being contaminated with coliform bacteria as much as 4 × 10cfu/g, 2 × 102 cfu/g, 1 × 10cfu/g. This Coliform bacterial contamination is thought to come from the water used. If the condition of the water used and the place where the chicken meat is sold to Trader B, trader D, and trader F, it shows that it is less hygienic. This aligns with the opinion (Bambang et al., 2014) [13], which states that coliform bacteria contamination was found in the water. According to (Nugroho Aerita et al., 2014b) [11], sanitation of sales places equipment used can influence the growth of bacteria in chicken meat, while according to (Astalia Zuanita et al., 2014) [12] and (Rizaldi et al., n.d.) [13]Coliform bacteria were found in meat chickens sold in supermarkets and traditional markets whose quantity exceeds the maximum contamination limit set by SNI 7388: 2009. 

 

The results of testing for Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets, three traders identified Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that exceeded the SNI 7388:2009 standard, namely in trader B there were 3 × 102 cfu/g Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, trader D as much as 2 × 102cfu/g, and trader F as much as 2 × 102 cfu/g. Unhygienic chicken meat has the potential to be contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, and this Staphylococcus aureus bacterial contamination is thought to come from less clean workers. This is in line with the opinion of (Hidayati, 2021) [14] and (Apriliana, 2018) [15], who state that there is Staphylococcus aureus bacterial contamination in chicken meat sold at open stalls.

 

The pH value of chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets shows a pH value of 5.64 - 6.30; this allows contaminating bacteria to live on chicken meat. According to (Yanti & Kurniatuhadi, 2021) [16], the growth of Staphylococcus aureus is in the pH range of 5 - 8, and according to research results (Ollong et al., 2020 [17], the pH of chicken meat is in the range of 5.7 - 5.98, and all samples are contaminated with Coliform bacteria.

Conclusion

The results of testing and evaluating the microbiological quality of chicken meat sold in traditional markets and supermarkets based on the total number of bacteria found in chicken meat sold by all traders exceed the maximum limit of contamination according to SNI 7388:2009, while based on the number of Coliform bacteria and the number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria There were three traders (traders B, D and F) who exceeded the maximum contamination limit, the pH value of the chicken meat sold ranged from 5.64 - 6.30.

 

Figure 1. Trader A; Trader B; Trader C; Trader D; Trader E; Trader F; SM Supermarket Traders

 

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

 

Funding: No funding sources

 

Ethical approval: The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Universitas Negeri Makassar

References
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